% % This file was created by the Typo3 extension % sevenpack version 0.7.14 % % --- Timezone: CEST % Creation date: 2017-05-23 % Creation time: 12-49-56 % --- Number of references % 217 % @Article { 1932, title = {Virtual-Reality Techniques Resolve the Visual Cues Used by Fruit Flies to Evaluate Object Distances}, journal = {Current Biology}, year = {2002}, month = {9}, volume = {12}, number = {18}, pages = {1591-1594}, abstract = {Insects can estimate distance or time-to-contact of surrounding objects from locomotion-induced changes in their retinal position and/or size. Freely walking fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use the received mixture of different distance cues to select the nearest objects for subsequent visits. Conventional methods of behavioral analysis fail to elucidate the underlying data extraction. Here we demonstrate first comprehensive solutions of this problem by substituting virtual for real objects; a tracker-controlled 360\(^{\circ}\) panorama converts a fruit fly's changing coordinates into object illusions that require the perception of specific cues to appear at preselected distances up to infinity. An application reveals the following: (1) en-route sampling of retinal-image changes accounts for distance discrimination within a surprising range of at least 8-80 body lengths (20-200 mm). Stereopsis and peering are not involved. (2) Distance from image translation in the expected direction (motion parallax) outweighs distance from image expansion, which accounts for impact-avoiding flight reactions to looming objects. (3) The ability to discriminate distances is robust to artificially delayed updating of image translation. Fruit flies appear to interrelate self-motion and its visual feedback within a surprisingly long time window of about 2 s. The comparative distance inspection practiced in the small fruit fly deserves utilization in self-moving robots.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982202011417}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01141-7}, author = {Schuster, S and Strauss, R and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { 869, title = {Task-specific association of photoreceptor systems and steering parameters in Drosophila}, journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology A}, year = {2001}, month = {10}, volume = {187}, number = {8}, pages = {617-632}, abstract = {Visual motion processing enables moving fruit flies to stabilize their course and altitude and to approach selected objects. Earlier attempts to identify task-specific pathways between two photoreceptor systems (peripheral retinula cells 1–6, and central retinula cells 7+8) and three steering parameters (wingstroke asymmetry, abdomen deflection, hindleg deflection) attributed course control and object fixation to peripheral retinula cells 1–6-mediated simultaneous reactions of these parameters. The present investigation includes first results from fixed flying or freely walking ninaE17 mutants which cannot synthesize the peripheral retinula cells 1–6 photoreceptor-specific opsin. Retention of about 12\% of the normal course control and about 58\% of the object fixation in these flies suggests partial input sharing for both responses and, possibly, a specialization for large-field (peripheral retinula cells 1–6) and small-field (central retinula cells 7+8) motion. Such signals must be combined to perceive relative motion between an object and its background. The combining links found in larger species might explain a previously neglected interdependence of course control and object fixation in Drosophila. – Output decomposition revealed an unexpected orchestration of steering. Wingstroke asymmetry and abdomen deflection do not contribute in fixed proportions to the yaw torque of the flight system. Different steering modes seem to be selected according to their actual efficiency under closed-loop conditions and to the degree of intended turning. An easy experimental access to abdominal steering is introduced.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2Fs003590100234.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1007/s003590100234}, author = {Strauss, R and G{\"o}tz, KG and Renner, M} } @Article { 43, title = {Binocular Contributions to Optic Flow Processing in the Fly Visual System}, journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology}, year = {2001}, month = {2}, volume = {85}, number = {2}, pages = {724-734}, abstract = {Integrating binocular motion information tunes wide-field direction-selective neurons in the fly optic lobe to respond preferentially to specific optic flow fields. This is shown by measuring the local preferred directions (LPDs) and local motion sensitivities (LMSs) at many positions within the receptive fields of three types of anatomically identifiable lobula plate tangential neurons: the three horizontal system (HS) neurons, the two centrifugal horizontal (CH) neurons, and three heterolateral connecting elements. The latter impart to two of the HS and to both CH neurons a sensitivity to motion from the contralateral visual field. Thus in two HS neurons and both CH neurons, the response field comprises part of the ipsi- and contralateral visual hemispheres. The distributions of LPDs within the binocular response fields of each neuron show marked similarities to the optic flow fields created by particular types of self-movements of the fly. Based on the characteristic distributions of local preferred directions and motion sensitivities within the response fields, the functional role of the respective neurons in the context of behaviorally relevant processing of visual wide-field motion is discussed.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/85/2/724.long}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, R and Egelhaaf, M} } @Article { 33, title = {Drosophila Pax-6/eyeless is essential for normal adult brain structure and function}, journal = {Journal of Neurobiology}, year = {2001}, month = {2}, volume = {46}, number = {2}, pages = {73-88}, abstract = {A role for the Pax-6 homologue eyeless in adult Drosophila brain development and function is described. eyeless expression is detected in neurons, but not glial cells, of the mushroom bodies, the medullar cortex, the lateral horn, and the pars intercerebralis. Furthermore, severe defects in adult brain structures essential for vision, olfaction, and for the coordination of locomotion are provoked by two newly isolated mutations of Pax-6/eyeless that result in truncated proteins. Consistent with the morphological lesions, we observe defective walking behavior for these eyeless mutants. The implications of these data for understanding postembryonic brain development and function in Drosophila are discussed.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-4695(20010205)46:2\%3C73::AID-NEU10\%3E3.0.CO;2-N/epdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1002/1097-4695(20010205)46:2<73::AID-NEU10>3.0.CO;2-N}, author = {Callaerts, P and Leng, S and Clements, J and Benassayag, C and Cribbs, D and Kang, YY and Walldorf, U and Fischbach, K-F and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 1163, title = {The effect of mirrored visual feedback on the EEG correlates of pointing direction}, journal = {Journal of Vision}, year = {2001}, month = {12}, volume = {1}, number = {3}, pages = {318}, abstract = {Purpose: Looking through laterally mirroring prisms produces at least two changes in the phenomenal appearance of the world: When stretching your right arm, for example, visual feedback will indicate that it is your left arm that is moving. But not only will the 'wrong' limb seem to be moving, it will also move in the diametrically opposite direction. Usually output and feedback of an action 'fit' (i.e., go to and come from the same limb). But when looking through mirroring prisms, visual feedback comes from the opposite arm and opposite direction. In order to behave properly under these circumstances, some kind of recalibration has to occur. The contralateral hemisphere is more strongly involved in controlling these arm movements. It is possible that this recalibration alters the lateralization of the neural activity that controls these movements. To test for this, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related lateralizations (ERLs) of the EEG during pointing movements with and without laterally mirrored vision. Targets were presented either centrally or laterally. Results: We found effects of mirrored vision on the lateralization of neural activity. The relative involvement of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the SEEN target position (objective position is reversed with mirrored feedback) increased, especially around 300-400ms after stimulus onset. Additionally, differences in the ERPs around the same time after target onset were evident. Both effects were maximal around the parietal and parieto-occipital sites, suggesting modified stimulus processing.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf1163.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, department2 = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://journalofvision.org/1/3/318/}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Sarasota, FL, USA}, event_name = {First Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS 2001)}, DOI = {10.1167/1.3.318}, author = {Berndt, I and Wascher, E and Franz, VH and G{\"o}tz, KG and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Poster { 57, title = {Lateralisierung der hirnelektrischen Aktivit{\"a}t w{\"a}hrend Zielbewegungen mit gespiegeltem Blickfeld}, year = {2001}, month = {3}, pages = {147}, abstract = {Schaut man durch eine rechts-links spiegelnde Brille, so beobachtet man zwei Ph{\"a}nomene: Zeigt man z.B. mit dem rechten Arm, dann sieht es so aus, als f{\"u}hre der linke Arm diese Bewegung aus. Zudem scheint die Bewegung in die entgegengesetzte Richtung zu verlaufen. Befehl und R{\"u}ckmeldung stimmen also nicht mehr {\"u}berein, sind gegenl{\"a}ufig. Ein effizientes Verhalten mit gespiegeltem Feedback erfordert eine Umkodierung der visuomotorischen Koordination. Diese sollte sich in einer Ver{\"a}nderung der neuronalen Aktivit{\"a}t im EEG niederschlagen. Wir fanden in einer vorangegangenen Studie, dass sich die verschiedenen Anteile einer Zeigebewegung in Lateralisierungen hirnelektrischer Potentiale im EEG (event-related lateralizations = ERLs) abbilden: Auswahl des Effektors, Lokalisation des Zielreizes, Bewegungsrichtung und Kontrolle der r{\"a}umlich gerichteten Bewegung. Diese Lateralisierungen des EEG w{\"a}hrend der Zeigebewegung sollten sich auch durch die Spiegelung der visuellen R{\"u}ckmeldung spezifisch ver{\"a}ndern. Um dies zu untersuchen wurden EEG-Messungen w{\"a}hrend Zeigebewegungen mit und ohne Spiegelung des Gesichtsfeldes durchgef{\"u}hrt. Der Zielreiz wurde dabei entweder zentral oder lateralisiert (+/- 1,7 Grad) dargeboten. Es zeigte sich ein Effekt der Spiegelung auf die Lateralisierung des EEGs. Dieser bestand aus einer h{\"o}heren Aktivierung der zum gesehenen Zielreiz ipsilateralen Hemisph{\"a}re im Vergleich zur ungespiegelten Bedingung. (Zu beachten ist, dass sich die objektive Position bei Spiegelung umkehrt.) Dieser Effekt trat ca. 300-400 ms nach Stimulus Onset auf und war maximal in parietalen und parieto-occipitalen Regionen. Die Spiegelung verursachte eine r{\"a}umlich und zeitlich eingrenzbare Ver{\"a}nderung der Lateralisierung neuronaler Aktivit{\"a}t. Es liegt nahe, dass dies eine Modifikation der Zielreiz-Verarbeitung darstellt und durch die Umkodierung der visuomotorischen Koordination verursacht wird.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf57.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, department2 = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.twk.tuebingen.mpg.de/twk01/Psenso.htm}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {T{\"u}bingen, Germany}, event_name = {4. T{\"u}binger Wahrnehmungskonferenz (TWK 2001)}, author = {Berndt, I and Wascher, E and Franz, VH and G{\"o}tz, KG and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Thesis { 462, title = {Histologische und verhaltensphysiologische Untersuchungen zur Funktion der Protocerebralbr{\"u}cke in normalen und erblich gest{\"o}rten Fliegen (Drosophila melanogaster).}, year = {1999}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, type = {PhD}, author = {Leng, S} } @Article { 235, title = {Biological sensors: Controlling the fly's gyroscopes}, journal = {Nature}, year = {1998}, month = {4}, volume = {392}, number = {6678}, pages = {757-758}, abstract = {True flies — such as hoverflies or the blow fly Calliphora vicina — have breathtaking aerobatic capabilities due to a very elaborate flight apparatus. Not only do they beat their wings up to 150 times per second, but they have a gearbox with three gears in the wing joint1, and use non-stationary aerodynamics to generate exceptionally large flight forces2. These flies also show masterly control as they fly around obstacles and through turbulent air, and the way in which they do this is revealed in part by Chan et al.3 in Science. The authors report unexpected features of the 'gyroscopic' sense organs that tell the fly about its rotations in space. Most insects have four wings, consisting of the thin wing blade spread between a framework of stiff veins that also carry touch and strain receptors4. Wings are, therefore, usually mechanical effectors and sense organs at the same time. The wings of true flies are driven by two kinds of specialized muscle. First, two large 'power' muscles (which fill most of the fly's thorax) contract antagonistically at wing-beat frequency, in mechanical resonance with the thoracic box5. They produce several contraction cycles for each impulse from a motor neuron, so they are also called 'asynchronous' muscles5. Second, 13 small 'control' muscles, operating synchronously, act on the wing joint to extend and retract the wings, and to modify the wing kinematics for steering5. During evolution, the hind wings from the ancestors of true flies were transformed into the so-called halteres6, 7, 8. These are small, club-shaped organs, buried in the cleft between the fly's thorax and abdomen (Fig. 1a). During flight they oscillate up and down around a hinge joint (Fig. 1b), through an angle of about 180\(^{\circ}\) and in antiphase with the wings. Because of their small size and shape, as well as their location, they can hardly be expected to have any aerodynamic effect. Instead, they have been shown to act as highly specialized 'gyroscopic' sense organs, measuring rotations of the fly in space6, 7, 8.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v392/n6678/pdf/392757a0.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1038/33796}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 241, title = {Dendritic structure and receptive-field organization of optic flow processing interneurons in the fly.}, journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology}, year = {1998}, month = {4}, volume = {79}, number = {4}, pages = {1902-1917}, abstract = {Dendritic structure and receptive-field organization of optic flow processing interneurons in the fly. J. Neurophysiol. 79: 1902–1917, 1998. The third visual neuropil (lobula plate) of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala is a center for processing motion information. It contains, among others, 10 individually identifiable “vertical system” (VS) neurons responding to visual wide-field motions of arbitrary patterns. We demonstrate that each VS neuron is tuned to sense a particular aspect of optic flow that is generated during self-motion. Thus the VS neurons in the fly supply visual information for the control of head orientation, body posture, and flight steering. To reveal the functional organization of the receptive fields of the 10 VS neurons, we determined with a new method the distributions of local motion sensitivities and local preferred directions at 52 positions in the fly's visual field. Each neuron was identified by intracellular staining with Lucifer yellow and three-dimensional reconstructions from 10-\(\mu\)m serial sections. Thereby the receptive-field organization of each recorded neuron could be correlated with the location and extent of its dendritic arborization in the retinotopically organized neuropil of the lobula plate. The response fields of the VS neurons, i.e., the distributions of local preferred directions and local motion sensitivities, are not uniform but resemble rotatory optic flow fields that would be induced by the fly during rotations around various horizontal axes. Theoretical considerations and quantitative analyses of the data, which will be presented in a subsequent paper, show that VS neurons are highly specialized neural filters for optic flow processing and thus for the visual sensation of self-motions in the fly.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/79/4/1902}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, B and Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 258, title = {Persistence of orientation toward a temporarily invisible landmark in Drosophila melanogaster}, journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology A}, year = {1998}, month = {4}, volume = {182}, number = {4}, pages = {411-423}, abstract = {In arena experiments with the walking fruit fly, we found a remarkable persistence of orientation toward a landmark that disappeared during the fly's approach. The directional stability achieved by 'after-fixation' allows a fly to continue pursuit under natural conditions, where a selected target is frequently concealed by surrounding structures. The persistence of after-fixation was investigated in Buridan's paradigm, where a fly walks persistently back and forth between two inaccessible landmarks. Upon disappearance of a selected target, the flies maintained their intended course for more than 15 body lengths of approximately 2.5 mm in about 50\% of the trials. About 13\% even exceeded 75 body lengths. About 88\% of the approaches clustered in equal portions around peaks at 2.4 s and 8.6 s. About 12\% of the approaches persisted even longer. In contrast, a single peak at about 2.2 s is sufficient to describe the persistence of orientation in a random walk. The ability to pursue an invisible landmark is disturbed neither by a transient angular deviation from the course toward this landmark, when this target disappeared, nor by a distracting second landmark. Accordingly, after-fixation seems to require an internal representation of the direction toward the concealed target, and idiothetical course control to maintain this direction.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2Fs003590050190.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1007/s003590050190}, author = {Strauss, R and Pichler, J} } @Article { 236, title = {Visual processing: How to know where to go}, journal = {Nature}, year = {1998}, month = {3}, volume = {392}, number = {6673}, pages = {231-232}, abstract = {When you move through a landscape containing objects at various distances, the images on your retinas move as you turn and change as you progress. Such image motions ('optic flow') are the inevitable consequence of locomotion, and they occur in any creature or robot with eyes. Wylie and colleagues have studied the processing of optic flow in the pigeon brain1,2 and, on page 278 of this issue1, they describe in detail one component of that process.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v392/n6673/pdf/392231a0.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1038/32539}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 147, title = {Metamorphosis of the mushroom bodies; large scale rearrangements of the neural substrates for associative learning and memory in Drosophila.}, journal = {Learning \& Memory}, year = {1998}, volume = {5}, pages = {102-114}, abstract = {Paired brain centers known as mushroom bodies are key features of the circuitry for insect associative learning, especially when evoked by olfactory cues. Mushroom bodies have an embryonic origin, and unlike most other brain structures they exhibit developmental continuity, being prominent components of both the larval and the adult CNS, Here, we use cell-type- specific markers, provided by the P\{GAL4\} enhancer trap system, to follow specific subsets of mushroom body intrinsic and extrinsic neurons from the larval to the adult stage. We find marked structural differences between the larval and adult mushroom bodies, arising as the consequence of large-scale reorganization during metamorphosis. Extensive, though incomplete, degradation of the larval structure is followed by establishment of adult specific alpha and beta lobes, Kenyon cells of embryonic origin, by contrast, were found to project selectively to the adult gamma lobe, We propose that the gamma lobe stores information of relevance to both developmental stages, whereas the alpha and beta lobes have uniquely adult roles.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Armstrong, JD and de Belle, JS and Wang, Z and Kaiser, K} } @Inbook { 339, title = {Analysis of vision and gaze control in insects.}, year = {1998}, volume = {1}, pages = {20-22}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf339.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {C. Taddei-Ferretti}, publisher = {World Scientific Publishing}, address = {5 Tuh Tuck Link, 596224 Singapore}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Inbook { 345, title = {Automatische Diagnose genetisch bedingter Laufanomalien der Fliege Drosophila bei freier Bewegung in realer oder virtueller Umgebung.}, year = {1998}, volume = {51}, pages = {53-78}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {T. Plesser, P. Wittenburg}, publisher = {Gesellschaft f{\"u}r wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung (GWDG)}, address = {Am Fassberg, Turm 6, 37077 G{\"o}ttingen}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Strauss, R} } @Inbook { 1171, title = {Processing of visual information in the fruitfly Drosophila. I. Sensory maps for the control of course and altitude.}, year = {1998}, volume = {5}, pages = {431-446}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {C. Taddei-Ferretti \& C.Musio}, publisher = {World Scientific Publishing}, address = {5 Tuh Tuck Link, 596224 Singapore}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Inbook { 338, title = {Processing of visual information in the fruitfly Drosophila. II. Adaptation and experience improve the efficiency of search.}, year = {1998}, volume = {5}, pages = {447-456}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {C. Taddei-Ferretti \&, C.Musio}, publisher = {World Scientific Publishing, Singapore 1998}, address = {5 Toh Tuck Link, 596224 Singapore}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Inbook { 340, title = {The organization of gaze control in the blowfly Calliphora.}, year = {1998}, volume = {2}, pages = {41-52}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf340.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {C. Taddei-Ferretti}, publisher = {World Scientific Publishing}, address = {5 Tuh Tuck Link, 596224 Singapore}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Inbook { 342, title = {Visual sensation of self-motion in the blowfly Calliphora.}, year = {1998}, volume = {2}, pages = {53-70}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf342.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {C.Taddei-Ferretti}, publisher = {World Scientific Publishers}, address = {5 Tuh Tuck Link, 596224 Singapore}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Hengstenberg, R and Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, B} } @Poster { 281, title = {Ethograms of three Drosophila mutant strains with structural defects in the protocerebral bridge}, year = {1998}, month = {5}, volume = {26}, pages = {259}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {26th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: New Neuroethology on the Move}, author = {Leng, S and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 335, title = {How flies perform turns: High resolution statistical analyses in normal and brain-defective Drosophila melanogaster}, year = {1998}, month = {5}, volume = {26}, pages = {258}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {26th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: New Neuroethology on the Move}, author = {Wannek, U and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 1013, title = {The color-coding system of the photopic receptors R 7+8 in Drosophila supports object fixation}, year = {1998}, month = {5}, volume = {26}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {Elsner, N. , R. Wehner}, publisher = {Thieme}, address = {Stuttgart, Germany}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {26th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: New Neuroethology on the Move}, ISBN = {3-13-112461-X}, author = {Strauss, R and Renner, M and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 1195, title = {The color-coding system of the photopic receptors R 7+8 in Drosophila supports object fixation}, year = {1998}, month = {5}, volume = {26}, pages = {421}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {26th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: New Neuroethology on the Move}, author = {Strauss, R and Renner, M and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 276, title = {VS-neurons as matched filters for self-motion-induced optic flow fields}, year = {1998}, month = {5}, volume = {26}, pages = {419}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf276.pdf}, url2 = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/ps276.ps}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {26th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: New Neuroethology on the Move}, author = {Franz, MO and Hengstenberg, R and Krapp, HG} } @Article { 362, title = {Association of visual objects and olfactory cues in Drosophila}, journal = {Learning \& Memory}, year = {1997}, month = {7}, volume = {4}, number = {2}, pages = {192-204}, abstract = {Context-dependent preferences in a choice between an upper and a lower visual object of otherwise identical appearance were recorded during stationary flight of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, in a flight simulator. The test animal was held in a fixed orientation at the center of a wing-beat processor that converts attempted turns into counter-rotations of a surrounding cylindrical panorama. This allowed the fly to maneuver the preferred object into the actual direction of flight. Single flies were trained to avoid a course toward the visual object that had been associated with the aversive odor benzaldehyde (BAL). Conditioned object avoidance was investigated in different treatment groups by collective evaluation of the scores from 80 long-lasting flights (> 1 hr). In addition to a significant cross-modal association, we found a striking long-term effect of transient exposure to BAL both in the embryonic and larval states. The preimaginal experience significantly increased the indifference to BAL in the adult flies. Disturbed vision does not account for this effect: Neither the perception nor the discrimination of the visual objects was significantly impaired in the investigated flies. Disturbed olfaction could explain the present results. Recently, however, preimaginal BAL uptake has been found to interfere directly with the retention of heat-shock-conditioned object avoidance.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/4/2/192.full.pdf+html}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1101/lm.4.2.192}, author = {Guo, A and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { 381, title = {Processing of artificial visual feedback in the walking fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster}, journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology}, year = {1997}, month = {5}, volume = {200}, number = {9}, pages = {1281-1296}, abstract = {A computerized 360 degrees panorama allowed us to suppress most of the locomotion-induced visual feedback of a freely walking fly without neutralizing its mechanosensory system ('virtual open-loop' conditions). This novel paradigm achieves control over the fly's visual input by continuously evaluating its actual position and orientation. In experiments with natural visual feedback (closed-loop conditions), the optomotor turning induced by horizontal pattern motion in freely walking Drosophila melanogaster increased with the contrast and brightness of the stimulus. Conspicuously striped patterns were followed with variable speed but often without significant overall slippage. Using standard open-loop conditions in stationary walking flies and virtual open-loop or closed-loop conditions in freely walking flies, we compared horizontal turning induced by either horizontal or vertical motion of appropriately oriented rhombic figures. We found (i) that horizontal displacements and the horizontal-motion illusion induced by vertical displacements of the oblique edges of the rhombic figures elicited equivalent open-loop turning responses; (ii) that locomotion-induced visual feedback from the vertical edges of the rhombic figures in a stationary horizontal position diminished the closed-loop turning elicited by vertical displacements to only one-fifth of the response to horizontal displacements; and (iii) that virtual open-loop responses of mobile flies and open-loop responses of immobilized flies were equivalent in spite of delays of up to 0.1 s in the generation of the virtual stimulus. Horizontal compensatory turning upon vertical displacements of oblique edges is quantitatively consistent with the direction-selective summation of signals from an array of elementary motion detectors for the horizontal stimulus components within their narrow receptive fields. A compensation of the aperture-induced ambiguity can be excluded under these conditions. However, locomotion-induced visual feedback greatly diminished the horizontal-motion illusion in a freely walking fly. The illusion was used to assay the quality of open-loop simulation in the new paradigm.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://jeb.biologists.org/content/200/9/1281.long}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Strauss, R and Schuster, S and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { 380, title = {Neuroblast ablation in Drosophila P[GAL4] lines reveals origins of olfactory interneurons}, journal = {Journal of Neurobiology}, year = {1997}, month = {4}, volume = {32}, number = {5}, pages = {443-456}, abstract = {Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment of early first instar larvae in Drosophila was previously shown to ablate a single dividing lateral neuroblast (LNb) in the brain. Early larval HU application to P[GAL4] strains that label specific neuron types enabled us to identify the origins of the two major classes of interneurons in the olfactory system. HU treatment resulted in the loss of antennal lobe local interneurons and of a subset of relay interneurons (RI), elements usually projecting to the calyx and the lateral protocerebrum (LPR). Other RI were resistant to HU and still projected to the LPR. However, they formed no collaterals in the calyx region (which was also ablated), suggesting that their survival does not depend on targets in the calyx. Hence, the ablated interneurons were derived from the LNb, whereas the HU-resistant elements originated from neuroblasts which begin to divide later in larval life. Developmental GAL4 expression patterns suggested that differentiated RI are present at the larval stage already and may be retained through metamorphosis.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4695(199705)32:5\%3C443::AID-NEU1\%3E3.0.CO;2-5/epdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-4695(199705)32:5<443::AID-NEU1>3.0.CO;2-5}, author = {Stocker, RF and Heimbeck, G and Gendre, N and de Belle, JS} } @Article { 367, title = {A fast stimulus procedure to determine local receptive field properties of motion-sensitive visual interneurons.}, journal = {Vision Research}, year = {1997}, month = {2}, volume = {37}, number = {2}, pages = {225-234}, abstract = {We present a method to determine, within a few seconds, the local preferred direction (LPD) and local motion sensitivity (LMS) in small patches of the receptive fields of wide-field motion-sensitive neurons. This allows us to map, even during intracellular recordings, the distribution of LPD and LMS over the huge receptive fields of neurons sensing self-motions of the animal. Comparisons of the response field of a given neuron with the optic flow fields caused by different movements in space, allows us to specify the particular motion of the animal sensed by that neuron.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698996001149}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1016/S0042-6989(96)00114-9}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 382, title = {Larval behavior of Drosophila central complex mutants:internations between no bridge, foraging and chaser.}, journal = {Journal of Neurogenetics}, year = {1997}, volume = {11}, pages = {99-115}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Varnam, C and Strauss, R and de Belle, JS and Sokolowski, M} } @Inproceedings { 1304, title = {In memoriam Werner Reichardt 1924-1992}, year = {1997}, pages = {15-19}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf1304.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {Taddei Ferretti, C.}, publisher = {World Scientific}, address = {Singapore}, booktitle = {Biophysics of photoreception: Molecular and phototransductive events}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_name = {International School of Biophysics 1994}, ISBN = {9-810-23228-4}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Poster { 410, title = {Impaired step lengths common to three unrelated Drosophila mutant lines with common brain defects confirm the involvement of the protocerebral bridge in optimizing walking speed}, year = {1997}, month = {5}, pages = {294}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {25th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: From Membrane to Mind}, author = {Leng, S and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 1194, title = {Optomotor force control within the wingbeat cycle of Drosophila}, year = {1997}, month = {5}, pages = {295}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {25th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: From Membrane to Mind}, author = {Renner, M and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 426, title = {Right-left bargaining in the central complex: lessons from unilaterally defective Drosophila mosaic mutants}, year = {1997}, month = {5}, pages = {293}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {25th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: From Membrane to Mind}, author = {Strauss, R and Trinath, T and Leng, S} } @Poster { 436, title = {Turning strategies of the walking fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and impairments thereof in the brain defective mutant no bridge}, year = {1997}, month = {5}, pages = {292}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {25th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: From Membrane to Mind}, author = {Wannek, U and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 422, title = {Walking speed of fruitflies under conditions of artificial visual feedback}, year = {1997}, month = {5}, pages = {291}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {25th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: From Membrane to Mind}, author = {Schuster, S} } @Article { 525, title = {Estimation of self-motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons.}, journal = {Nature}, year = {1996}, month = {12}, volume = {384}, number = {6608}, pages = {463-466}, abstract = {Humans, animals and some mobile robots use visual motion cues for object detection and navigation in structured surroundings1–4. Motion is commonly sensed by large arrays of small field movement detectors, each preferring motion in a particular direction5,6. Self-motion generates distinct 'optic flow fields' in the eyes that depend on the type and direction of the momentary locomotion (rotation, translation) 7. To investigate how the optic flow is processed at the neuronal level, we recorded intracellularly from identified interneurons in the third visual neuropile of the blowfly8. The distribution of local motion tuning over their huge receptive fields was mapped in detail. The global structure of the resulting 'motion response fields' is remarkably similar to optic flow fields. Thus, the organization of the receptive fields of the so-called VS neurons9,10 strongly suggests that each of these neurons specifically extracts the rotatory component of the optic flow around a particular horizontal axis. Other neurons are probably adapted to extract translatory flow components. This study shows how complex visual discrimination can be achieved by task-oriented preprocessing in single neurons.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6608/pdf/384463a0.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1038/384463a0}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 543, title = {Larval behavior of Drosophila central complex mutants: interactions between no bridge, foraging, and Chaser}, journal = {Journal of Neurogenetics}, year = {1996}, month = {12}, volume = {11}, number = {1-2}, pages = {99-115}, abstract = {The central complex (CC) is a prominent component of the adult insect brain. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations which alter CC structure also impair adult locomotion. This has led to the suggestion that the CC functions as a higher organizer of adult locomotor patterns (Strauss and Heisenberg, 1993). In the present study, we describe altered larval behavior resulting from mutations in six CC structural genes. Differences from the control strain were found for larvae from each CC mutant strain in at least one of three assays. central body defect1 (cbd1), central complex deranged1 (ccd1), central brain deranged1 (ceb1) and central complex1 (cex1) larvae all had general defects in locomotion (on a non-nutritive agar surface). Both ellipsoid body open2 (ebo2) and no bridge1 (nob1) had larval foraging behavior defects (on a nutritive yeast surface). Only cex1 larvae required significantly longer time in a roll over assay of muscle tone. Genetic analysis suggested that nob1 interacts additively with two other genes influencing larval foraging behavior, foraging (for) and Chaser (Csr). for also had an influence on adult foraging, whereas here we found that Csr did not. We did not include adult foraging behavior tests of the CC mutants due to general locomotion defects in these flies (Strauss and Heisenberg, 1993).}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01677069609107065}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.3109/01677069609107065}, author = {Varnam, CJ and Strauss, R and de Belle, JS and Sokolowski, MB} } @Article { 526, title = {Activation phase ensures kinematic efficacy in flight-steering muscles of Drosophila melanogaster}, journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology A}, year = {1996}, month = {9}, volume = {179}, number = {3}, pages = {311-322}, abstract = {During tethered flight in Drosophila melanogaster, spike activity of the second basalar flight-control muscle (M.b2) is correlated with an increase in both the ipsilateral wing beat amplitude and the ipsilateral flight force. The frequency of muscle spikes within a burst is about 100 Hz, or 1 spike for every two wing beat cycles. When M.b2 is active, its spikes tend to occur within a comparatively narrow phase band of the wing beat cycle. To understand the functional role of this phase-lock of firing in the control of flight forces, we stimulated M.b2 in selected phases of the wing beat cycle and recorded the effect on the ipsilateral wing beat amplitude. Varying the phase timing of the stimulus had a significant effect on the wing beat amplitude. A maximum increase of wing beat amplitude was obtained by stimulating M.b2 at the beginning of the upstroke or about 1 ms prior to the narrow phase band in which the muscle spikes typically occur during flight. Assuming a delay of 1 ms between the stimulation of the motor nerve and muscle activation, these results indicate that M.b2 is activated at an instant of the stroke cycle that produces the greatest effect on wing beat amplitude.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2FBF00194985.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1007/BF00194985}, author = {Lehmann, F-O and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { 446, title = {Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm)}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, year = {1996}, month = {9}, volume = {93}, number = {18}, pages = {9875-9880}, abstract = {Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the ''original'' genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/93/18/9875}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1073/pnas.93.18.9875}, author = {de Belle, JS and Heisenberg, M} } @Article { 447, title = {The wake dynamics and flight forces of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster}, journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology}, year = {1996}, month = {9}, volume = {199}, number = {9}, pages = {2085-2104}, abstract = {We have used flow visualizations and instantaneous force measurements of tethered fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to study the dynamics of force generation during flight. During each complete stroke cycle, the flies generate one single vortex loop consisting of vorticity shed during the downstroke and ventral flip. This gross pattern of wake structure in Drosophila is similar to those described for hovering birds and some other insects. The wake structure differed from those previously described, however, in that the vortex filaments shed during ventral stroke reversal did not fuse to complete a circular ring, but rather attached temporarily to the body to complete an inverted heart-shaped vortex loop. The attached ventral filaments of the loop subsequently slide along the length of the body and eventually fuse at the tip of the abdomen. We found no evidence for the shedding of wing-tip vorticity during the upstroke, and argue that this is due to an extreme form of the Wagner effect acting at that time. The flow visualizations predicted that maximum flight forces would be generated during the downstroke and ventral reversal, with little or no force generated during the upstroke. The instantaneous force measurements using laser-interferometry verified the periodic nature of force generation. Within each stroke cycle, there was one plateau of high force generation followed by a period of low force, which roughly correlated with the upstroke and downstroke periods. However, the fluctuations in force lagged behind their expected occurrence within the wing-stroke cycle by approximately 1 ms or one-fifth of the complete stroke cycle. This temporal discrepancy exceeds the range of expected inaccuracies and artifacts in the measurements, and we tentatively discuss the potential retarding effects within the underlying fluid mechanics.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://jeb.biologists.org/content/199/9/2085.long}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Dickinson, MH and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { 517, title = {Optomotor control of course and altitude in Drosophila melanogaster is correlated with distinct activities of at least three pairs of flight steering muscles}, journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology}, year = {1996}, month = {8}, volume = {199}, number = {8}, pages = {1711-1726}, abstract = {Flight control in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is achieved by minute sets of muscles on either side of the thorax. Control responses of wings and muscles were elicited during fixed flight by moving a striped pattern in front of the eyes. For example, pattern motion from the lower right to the upper left signals to the test fly a rotatory course deviation to the right and simultaneously a translatory altitude displacement downwards. The counteracting response to the displacement of the retinal image is an increase in thrust and lift on the right, accomplished mainly by increasing the wingbeat amplitude (WBA) on that side. A comparison of such responses with the simultaneously recorded action potentials in the prominent basalar muscles M.b1 and M.b2 and axillary muscles M.I1 and M.III1 on either side suggests that three of these muscles act on the WBA more or less independently and contribute to the optomotor control of course and altitude. During flight, M.b1 is almost continuously active with a frequency equal to or slightly below 1 spike per wingbeat cycle. The spikes occur within a narrow phase interval of this cycle, normally at the beginning of the transition from upstroke to downstroke. However, the visual stimulus described above causes a substantial phase lead in M.b1 on the right; the spikes occur shortly before the end of the upstroke. Such phase shifts are accompanied by comparatively smooth 'tonic' responses of the WBA. The activities of M.b2 and M.I1 are normally very low. However, the stimulus described above activates M.b2 on the right in a phase interval approximately two-thirds into the upstroke and M.I1 on the left in a phase interval at the beginning of the downstroke. The spikes tend to occur in bursts. These bursts are correlated with WBA-increasing 'hitches' (rapid changes in amplitude) on the right and WBA-decreasing hitches on the left. As fast 'phasic' responses, the burst-induced hitches are likely to account for the course-controlling 'body saccades' observed during free flight. For unknown reasons, M.I1 is activated by pattern motion but cannot conceivably assist the other muscles in altitude control. Unlike its homologues in larger flies (Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala), M.III1 does not participate in optomotor flight control. Its activation seems to support the termination of flight and wing retraction at rest. The essential properties of the three pairs of muscles M.b1, M.b2 and M.I1 resemble those found in larger flies; the muscles are controlled by motion detectors with muscle-specific 'preferred directions' in the hexagonal array of retinal elements. Optomotor control of the three pairs of muscles in Drosophila melanogaster could explain most, but not all, of the WBA responses recorded so far.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://jeb.biologists.org/content/199/8/1711.long}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Heide, G and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { 539, title = {Tri-axial, real-time logging of fly head movements}, journal = {Journal of Neuroscience Methods}, year = {1996}, month = {2}, volume = {64}, number = {2}, pages = {209-218}, abstract = {We present a method to record and simultaneously display the three rotatory components of arbitrary head turns of an insect flying stationarily in a wind tunnel or walking on a treadmill. An elongated marker, placed on the fly's forehead, is video- recorded from ahead under deep red stroboscopic illumination, invisible to the insect. A fast on-board image processor of a PC video-adapter (True Vision, AT-Vista), programmed in its native code, extracts position and orientation of the marker in the video-image. The host PC transforms these data into calibrated head angles and displays stimulus and response components after 40 ms processing time at a rate of 50 frames per second. Head turns are measured relative to the fly's trunk even when the fly is rotated around its body axis provided that it is aligned with the video-axis. Technical tests, as well as recordings from live flies responding to various stimuli, illustrate the performance and accuracy of the procedure. This minimally invasive method of motion recording should be easily adaptable to other insects and to similar movements of small parts.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf539.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {10.1016/0165-0270(95)00136-0}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0165027095001360}, author = {Stange, G and Hengstenberg, R} } @Poster { 598, title = {A fast method of examining turning behavior in Drosophila}, year = {1996}, month = {5}, volume = {24}, pages = {133}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {24th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: Brain and Evolution}, author = {Wannek, U and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 591, title = {Internal representation of targets during visual search in the fly Drosophila?}, year = {1996}, month = {5}, pages = {353}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {24th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: Brain and Evolution}, author = {Schuster, S and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 1193, title = {Internal representation of targets during visual search in the fly Drosophila?}, year = {1996}, month = {5}, pages = {353}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {24th G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: Brain and Evolution}, author = {Schuster, S and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 580, title = {A new walking impaired Drosophila mutant has a structural defect in the protocerebral bridge of the central complex.}, journal = {Brain and Evolution, Vol. II, (Eds.) N. Elsner, H.-U. Schnitzler. Thieme, Stuttgart}, year = {1996}, pages = {134}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Leng, S and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 574, title = {Distribution of roll motion sensitivity in the eyes of Calliphora: a comparison between neurons and behaviour.}, journal = {Brain and Evolution, Vol. II, (Eds.) N. Elsner, H.U. Schnitzler. Thieme, Stuttgart 1996}, year = {1996}, pages = {349}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf574.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Hengstenberg, R and Krapp, HG} } @Poster { 599, title = {Do mushroom bodies mediate circadian locomotor activity rhythms in Drosophila?}, journal = {In: Brain and Evolution, Vol. I, (Eds.) N. Elsner and H.-U. Schnitzler. Thieme, Stuttgart}, year = {1996}, pages = {29}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Wulf, J and de Belle, JS and Helfrich-F{\"o}rster, C} } @Poster { 567, title = {Genetic, neuroanatomical and behavioral analyses of the mushroom-body-miniature gene in Drosophila melanogaster.}, journal = {J. Neurogenet.}, year = {1996}, volume = {10}, pages = {24}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {de Belle, JS and Heisenberg, M} } @Poster { 592, title = {Is walking in a straight line controlled by the central complex? Evidence from a new Drosophila mutant.}, journal = {In: Brain and Evolution, Vol. II, (Eds.) N. Elsner and H.-U. Schnitzler. Thieme, Stuttgart}, year = {1996}, pages = {135}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Strauss, R and Trinath, T} } @Thesis { 613, title = {Repr{\"a}sentation visueller Objekte beim Suchlauf der Fliege Drosophila}, year = {1996}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, institution = {Eberhard-Karls-Universit{\"a}t T{\"u}bingen}, type = {PhD}, author = {Schuster, S} } @Article { 621, title = {Drosophila mushroom body subdomains - innate or learned representations of odor preference and sexual orientation.}, journal = {Neuron}, year = {1995}, month = {8}, volume = {15}, number = {2}, pages = {245-247}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0896627395900292}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1016/0896-6273(95)90029-2}, author = {de Belle, JS} } @Inproceedings { 1181, title = {Processing of visual input in the fruitfly Drosophila I: Conversion of the retinal image into a stack of sensory maps, hereditary defects}, year = {1995}, month = {6}, day = {9}, pages = {1-6}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, talk_type = {Invited Lecture}, web_url = {http://indico.ictp.it/event/a02295/contribution/28/material/0/0.pdf}, editor = {Geiger, G. , J. Kaas, O. Siddiqi}, publisher = {International Centre for Theoretical Physics}, address = {Trieste, Italy}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Trieste, Italy}, event_name = {Antonio Borsellino College on Neurophysics : the Processing and Use of Sensory Information in Biological Systems}, author = {G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Inproceedings { 1182, title = {Processing of visual input in the fruitfly Drosophila II: Flight control by evaluation of the movements of figure and ground}, year = {1995}, month = {6}, day = {9}, pages = {1-7}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, talk_type = {Invited Lecture}, web_url = {http://indico.ictp.it/event/a02295/contribution/29/material/0/0.pdf}, editor = {Geiger, G. , J. Kaas, O. Siddiqi}, publisher = {International Centre for Theoretical Physics}, address = {Trieste, Italy}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Trieste, Italy}, event_name = {Antonio Borsellino College on Neurophysics : the Processing and Use of Sensory Information in Biological Systems}, author = {G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Inproceedings { 1183, title = {Processing of visual input in the fruitfly Drosophila III: Functional flexibility; search and choice}, year = {1995}, month = {6}, day = {9}, pages = {1-5}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, talk_type = {Invited Lecture}, web_url = {http://indico.ictp.it/event/a02295/contribution/30/material/0/0.pdf}, editor = {Geiger, G. , J. Kaas, O. Siddiqi}, publisher = {International Centre for Theoretical Physics}, address = {Trieste, Italy}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Trieste, Italy}, event_name = {Antonio Borsellino College on Neurophysics : the Processing and Use of Sensory Information in Biological Systems}, author = {G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 1303, title = {Filter neurons for specific optic flow patterns in the fly's visual systems}, year = {1995}, month = {9}, volume = {4}, pages = {255}, abstract = {The control of locomotion in a given environment requires information about instantaneous self-motion. Visually oriented animals, including man, may gain such information by analyzing the momentary optic flow pattern generated over both eyes during relative movement between animal and environment. Optic flow patterns can be described by vector fields where each single vector indicates the direction and velocity of the local relative movement at a certain position within the visual field. An optic flow pattern depends upon a set of motion parameters, namely (i) the direction of gaze and (ii) the rotatory and (iii) translatory components of self-motion. The translatory flow vectors also depend an the distance between visual objects and the eyes. Therefore, optic flow fields contain valuable information about the 3D-layout of the surroundings and instantaneous self-motion (Koenderink and van Doorn, 1987). About 50 motion-sensitive, wide-field interneurons which are assumed to be' involved in locomotor control are located in the third visual neuropil (lobula plate) of the blowfly's (Calliphora erythrocephala) visual system (Hausen, 1993). The output of many direction-specific movement detectors (EMDS) with small receptive fields are spatially integrated in a retinotopic manner an the dendrites of these interneurons. Are such interneurons adapted to sense specific aspects of the momentary optic flow field? To address this question, we investigated the receptive field organization of 10 identifiable interneurons of the so called vertical-system (VS; Hengstenberg, 1982) in great detail. We recorded intracellularly from the VS-neurons to determine the spatial distribution of local preferred directions and motion sensitivities at 52 positions spaced equally over the ipsilateral visual hemisphere (for method see: Menzel and Hengstenberg, 1991; Krapp and Hengstenberg 1992). The resulting response fields of the VS-neurons (about 90 recordings) show striking similarities to optic flow fields generated by specific motions in space (Krapp and Hengstenberg, 1994). By applying an iterative least square formalism (Koenderink and van Doorn, 1987) to the response fields we calculated the optimal self-motion parameters (translatory and rotatory component) for each VS-neuron. These parameters describe an optic flow field that best fits the respective measured response field. To find out whether the VS-neurons are functionally tuned more to the translatory or to the rotatory component of self-motion we systematically varied the optimal motion parameters. The error between the measured response field and the calculated optic flow field increases if both the translatory and the rotatory component deviate from the optimal motion parameters. The increase in the error is almost the same if only the rotatory component is varied. In contrast, if the translatory component is varied and the rotatory component is kept optimal the increase in the error is considerably smaller. The analysis of the response fields of the VS-neurons leads to the following conclusion: the VS-neurons are functionally tuned to sense rotations around different horizontally aligned body axes. The neurons VS1-VS3 are optimized to sense optic flow fields generated during nose-up pitch. VS4-VS7 are filter neurons for counterclockwise roll and VS8-VS10 are adapted to rotations around an axis that lies between the pitch and roll axes. Thus, the signals of the VS-neurons could contribute directly to visual flight control and gaze stabilization.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf1303.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Cambridge, UK}, event_name = {4th International Congress of Neuroethology}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, R} } @Poster { 1192, title = {Distance-dependent response to competing visual stimuli discloses an interactive component of visual perception in Drosophila}, year = {1995}, month = {3}, volume = {23}, pages = {403}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {23rd G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: Learning and memory}, author = {Schuster, S and G{\"o}tz, KG and Strauss, R} } @Poster { 1301, title = {Comparison between optic fields and response fields of visual interneurons in the lobula plate of the blowfly Calliphora.(In:Learning and Memory, ed.by Elsner,N. and Menzel, R.)}, year = {1995}, pages = {404}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf1301.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, R} } @Poster { 1302, title = {Gain differences of gaze stabilizing head movements, elicited by wide-field pattern motions, demonstrate in wildtype and mutant Drosophila, the importance of HS-and VS-Neurons in the third visual neuropile, for the control of turning behaviour.(In: Nervou}, year = {1995}, pages = {255}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf1302.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 1299, title = {The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora II: Three-dimensional organization of compensatory reactions to real and simulated rotations}, journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology A}, year = {1994}, month = {12}, volume = {175}, number = {6}, pages = {695-708}, abstract = {We quantitatively analysed compensatory head reactions of flies to imposed body rotations in yaw, pitch and roll and characterized the haltere as a sense organ for maintaining equilibrium. During constant velocity rotation, the head first moves to compensate retinal slip and then attains a plateau excursion (Fig. 3). Below 500\(^{\circ}\)/s, initial head velocity as well as final excursion depend linearily on stimulus velocities for all three axes. Head saccades occur rarely and are synchronous to wing beat saccades (Fig. 5). They are interpreted as spontaneous actions superposed to the compensatory reaction and are thus not resetting movements like the fast phase of ‘vestibulo-ocular’ nystagmus in vertebrates. In addition to subjecting the flies to actual body rotations we developed a method to mimick rotational stimuli by subjecting the body of a flying fly to vibrations (1 to 200 \(\mu\)m, 130 to 150 Hz), which were coupled on line to the fly's haltere beat. The reactions to simulated Coriolis forces, mimicking a rotation with constant velocity, are qualitatively and to a large extent also quantitatively identical to the reactions to real rotations (Figs. 3, 7–9). Responses to roll- and pitch stimuli are co-axial. During yaw stimulation (halteres and visual) the head performs both a yaw and a roll reaction (Fig. 3e,f), thus reacting not co-axial. This is not due to mechanical constraints of the neck articulation, but rather it is interpreted as an ‘advance compensation’ of a banked body position during free flight yaw turns (Fig. 10).}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2FBF00191842.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1007/BF00191842}, author = {Nalbach, G and Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { Nalbach1994, title = {Extremely non-orthogonal axes in a sense organ for rotation: Behavioural analysis of the dipteran haltere system}, journal = {Neuroscience}, year = {1994}, month = {7}, volume = {61}, number = {1}, pages = {149–163}, abstract = {Flies acquire information about self-rotation via Coriolis forces detected by their moving halteres. Information processing in the haltere system was analysed by exploiting the method of simulating rotational stimuli by vibrating the fly's body and simultaneously observing compensatory head and wing reactions. Although the force acting on one haltere contains Coriolis terms for rotations about three orthogonal axes, the one-haltered fly has only two measuring axes which are coded in lateral force components. A fly with two halteres has two vertical measuring axes and two horizontal axes, the latter spanning an angle of about 120\(^{\circ}\). Thus, three-dimensional turning information is acquired by bilateral computation in a highly non-orthogonal system. In the stimulus velocity range up to 1000\(^{\circ}\)/s, comparison of intact and one-haltered flies demonstrates that for the head roll reaction the inputs from both halteres are summated, whereas for the pitch reaction the summated inputs are modified by bilateral inhibition. This non-linear operation results in uniform gains and axis fidelity for all stimulus directions in the case of the head reaction. Response saturation at high velocities takes place after the bilateral summation. The functional consequence of non-orthogonality in the dipteran haltere system is apparently superior sensitivity for pitch compared to roll. Minimization of the “area of confusion”, an argument for orthogonality, seems to be of minor importance. The non-orthogonality necessitates a transformation from covariant projections to contravariant motor components. In tensor theory of the vestibulo-ocular reflex of vertebrates, this is widely assumed to be a linear operation performed by a metric tensor. The fly's solution is a linear tensor operation supplemented by a non-linear bilateral inhibition for the pitch reaction.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030645229490068X}, DOI = {10.1016/0306-4522(94)90068-X}, author = {Nalbach, G} } @Article { deBelleH1994, title = {Associative odor learning in Drosophila abolished by chemical ablation of mushroom bodies}, journal = {Science}, year = {1994}, month = {2}, volume = {263}, number = {5147}, pages = {692-695}, abstract = {The corpora pedunculata, or mushroom bodies (MBs), in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster adults consist of approximately 2500 parallel Kenyon cell fibers derived from four MB neuroblasts. Hydroxyurea fed to newly hatched larvae selectively deletes these cells, resulting in complete, precise MB albation. Adult flies developing without MBs behave normally in most respects, but are unable to perform in a classical conditioning paradigm that tests associative learning of odor cues and electric shock. This deficit cannot be attributed to reductions in olfactory sensitivity, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. The results demonstrate that MBs mediate associative odor learning in flies.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://science.sciencemag.org/content/263/5147/692.full.pdf+html}, DOI = {10.1126/science.8303280}, author = {de Belle, JS and Heisenberg, M} } @Inbook { 1300, title = {Aktueller Forschungsschwerpunkt der Arbeitsgruppe G{\"o}tz: Regelung der Kopfstellung und der K{\"o}rperhaltung einer Fliege bei der Bewegung im Raum}, year = {1994}, pages = {199-207}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf1300.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, editor = {Deutschmann, S.}, publisher = {Vandenhoek \& Ruprecht}, address = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, booktitle = {Jahruch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 1994}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Hengstenberg, R} } @Inbook { 1170, title = {Exploratory strategies in Drosophila.}, year = {1994}, pages = {47-59}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, publisher = {edited by Schildberger, K. \& Elsner, N. Progress in Zoology 39. G. Fischer, Stuttgart}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 1191, title = {Adaptation of area covering random walk in Drosophila}, year = {1994}, month = {5}, volume = {22}, pages = {304}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, event_name = {22nd G{\"o}ttingen Neurobiology Conference: Sensory transduction}, author = {Schuster, S and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Poster { 515, title = {Correspondence of dendritic field structure, receptive field organization and specific optic flow patterns in visual interneurons of the blowfly Calliphora.(In:Sensory Transduction, Vol 2, ed. by Elsner,N.,Breer,H.)}, year = {1994}, pages = {453}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/pdf515.pdf}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Krapp, HG and Hengstenberg, B and Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { 563, title = {The active control of wing rotation by Drosophila}, journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology}, year = {1993}, month = {9}, volume = {182}, number = {1}, pages = {173-189}, abstract = {This paper investigates the temporal control of a fast wing rotation in flies, the ventral flip, which occurs during the transition from downstroke to upstroke. Tethered flying Drosophila actively modulate the timing of these rapid supinations during yaw responses evoked by an oscillating visual stimulus. The time difference between the two wings is controlled such that the wing on the outside of a fictive turn rotates in advance of its contralateral partner. This modulation of ventral-flip timing between the two wings is strongly coupled with changes in wing-stroke amplitude. Typically, an increase in the stroke amplitude of one wing is correlated with an advance in the timing of the ventral flip of the same wing. However, flies do display a limited ability to control these two behaviors independently, as shown by flight records in which the correlation between ventral-flip timing and stroke amplitude transiently reverses. The control of ventral-flip timing may be part of an unsteady aerodynamic mechanism that enables the fly to alter the magnitude and direction of flight forces during turning maneuvers.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://jeb.biologists.org/content/182/1/173}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, author = {Dickinson, MH and Lehmann, FO and G{\"o}tz, KG} } @Article { Nalbach1993, title = {The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora I: Kinematics and dynamics}, journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology A}, year = {1993}, month = {9}, volume = {173}, number = {3}, pages = {293–300}, abstract = {The movement of the halteres during fixed flight was video recorded under stroboscopic illumination phase coupled to the wing beat. The halteres swing in a rounded triangular manner through an angle of almost 80\(^{\circ}\) in vertical planes tilted backwards from the transverse plane by ca. 30\(^{\circ}\) (Figs. 1, 2). The physics of the halteres are described in terms of a general formula for the force acting onto the endknob of the moving haltere during rotations and linear accelerations of the fly (Eq. 1). On the basis of the experimentally determined kinematics of the haltere, the primary forces and the forces dependent on angular velocity and on angular acceleration are calculated (Figs. 3, 4). Three distinct types of angular velocity dependent (Coriolis) forces are generated by rotations about 3 orthogonal axes. Thus, in principle one haltere could detect all rotations in space (Fig. 6). The angular acceleration dependent forces have the same direction and frequency as the Coriolis forces, but they are shifted in phase by 90\(^{\circ}\). Thus, they could be evaluated in parallel and independently from the Coriolis forces. They are, however, much smaller than the Coriolis forces for oscillation frequencies of the fly up to 20 Hz (Fig. 5). From these considerations it is concluded that Coriolis forces play the major role in detecting body rotations.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2FBF00212693.pdf}, DOI = {10.1007/BF00212693}, author = {Nalbach, G} } @Article { 1298, title = {Optical properties of the ocelli of Calliphora erythrocephala and their role in the dorsal light response}, journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology A}, year = {1993}, month = {8}, volume = {173}, number = {2}, pages = {143-149}, abstract = {The 3 Ocelli of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala, grouped close together on the top of the head (Fig.1), have large, extensively overlapping visual fields. Together they view the entire upper hemisphere of the surroundings plus part of the lower hemisphere (Fig. 5, 7). It is shown for the lateral ocelli that despite the underfocussing of the ocellar lens large patterns are imaged on the receptor mosaic. Because of the astigmatism of the lens, patterns in longitudinal orientations are more accurately represented than in others (Fig. 3). Nevertheless, an artifical horizon rotated around the long axis of the animal does not elicit head roll. Likewise, changes of overall brightness in the visual field of the median and one lateral ocellus elicit only weak phasic-tonic ''dorsal light responses'' of the animal which supplement the tonic dorsal light responses mediated by the compound eyes (Figs. 9, 10). Our results show that, in Calliphora, the ocelli have little influence on head orientation during flight, and must be assumed to serve other functions.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2FBF00192973.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, DOI = {10.1007/BF00192973}, author = {Schuppe, H and Hengstenberg, R} } @Article { SchmidSKB1993, title = {Serotonin-immunoreactivity and serotonin binding sites in the brain of the blowfly calliphora erythrocephala: A combined immunohistochemical and autoradiographic study}, journal = {Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C}, year = {1993}, month = {1}, volume = {104}, number = {1}, pages = {193-197}, abstract = {1. The serotonergic system in the brain of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, was analysed by two different methods. 2. Serotonergic neurones were visualized by immunocytochemistry with an antibody against serotonin. 3. Putative serotonin receptors were localized by quantitative autoradiography of [3H]serotonin binding. 4. We found regions with a colocalization of immunoreactive neurones and binding sites, and regions with a mismatch as well. 5. In regions of overlap, which include the optic lobes and the central body complex, serotonin might act as a neurotransmitter. 6. In areas of mismatch, as found e.g. in the lateral parts of the protocerebrum, serotonin might have a modulatory action.}, department = {Department G{\"o}tz}, web_url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0742841393901347}, DOI = {10.1016/0742-8413(93)90134-7}, author = {Schmid, A and Scheidler, A and Kaulen, P and Bruning, B} } @Article { 562, title = {Unsteady aerodynamic performance of model wings at low Reynolds numbers}, journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology}, year = {1993}, month = {1}, volume = {174}, number = {1}, pages = {45-64}, abstract = {The synthesis of a comprehensive theory of force production in insect flight is hindered in part by the lack of precise knowledge of unsteady forces produced by wings. Data are especially sparse in the intermediate Reynolds number regime (10