Contact

Dr. Sally Linkenauger

 

Picture of Linkenauger, Sally, Dr.

Sally Linkenauger

Position: Research Scientist  Unit: Alumni Bülthoff

I am a post doctoral fellow in the here at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in the Human Perception, Cognition, and Action group.  Specifically, I study the influence of the body on the scaling of perceived extents.  I using virtual reality and stereodisplays to manipulate the body and its ability to interact with the virtual environment to access how this may influence perceived sizes and distance.

The influence of a Virtual Body on Size and Distance Perception in Virtual Environments

S.A. Linkenauger, B.J. Mohler, & H.H. Bülthoff

 

Introduction

It has been suggested that in order to perceive sizes and distances angular information needs to be rescaled to a metric appropriate for space perception [1].  Previous research has suggested that the body is the used metric for scaling estimates of spatial layout [1].  Unfortunately, this assertion is difficult to test, because in real environments, the body is difficult to manipulate in a controlled and specific fashion.  However, individuals can experience virtual environments (VEs) in which they have a virtual body that is presented in first person perspective and animated in real time. Further, in VEs, we can precisely manipulate specific aspects of the self-representing avatar, and resultantly, we can test whether aspects of the sensory experience of the body influences the perception of space.

 

Goal

Our research aim is to assess whether individuals use their self-representing avatar’s body to scale perceived sizes and distances in VEs.

 

Method

We have run several experiments in VEs to investigate the effects of a virtual avatar body on size and distance perception (see Figure).  Participants viewed the VE in a stereoscopic, head-mounted display (HMD).  Participants’ head and hand movements were tracked in real time and a camera and virtual hand were animated in the VE.  We increased or decreased the size of the self-representing avatar’s hand and had participants verbally estimate the sizes of spheres in VEs.  In another experiment, we increased or decreased the length of the self-representing avatar’s arm and had participants estimate the distances between themselves and reachable distances using a visual matching task.

Initial results

We found that participants estimated the sizes of the spheres to be smaller when their virtual hands were larger in comparison to when their virtual hands were smaller.  We also found that participants estimated the reachable distances to be smaller when their virtual arm was longer than when their virtual arm was shorter.

 

Initial conclusions

These results support the notion that the body is used to scale perceived size and distance [1].  Future research will disentangle whether body size, i.e. arm length, or action capabilities, i.e. maximum reach, or both are responsible for the scaling of apparent sizes and distances.  Similarly, we will investigate how this scaling occurs with other aspects of the body, such as leg length and foot size.

 

Left: Participant in experimental set-up; Center: View of participant in size perception study; Right: View of participant in distance perception study.

 

References

  1. Proffitt DR and Linkenauger SA(2011) Perception viewed as a phenotypic expression, In: Tutorials In Action Science, (Ed)  Prinz W, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA
  2. Linkenauger SA, Mohler BJ and Bülthoff HH (2011) Welcome to Wonderland: The Apparent Size of the Body Influences Perceived Extents in Virtual Environments, Journal of Vision (poster), 11(11:VSS 2011 Abstracts) 70.
  3. Linkenauger SA, Mohler BJ and Bülthoff (2011): Welcome to wonderland: The apparent size of the self-avatar hands and arms influences perceived size and shape in virtual environments, Perception (Talk), 40(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 46.

Sally Ann Linkenauger

Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics

Spemannstr. 38

Tuebingen, Germany 72012

http://www.kyb.mpg.de/~sally

sally.linkenauger@tuebingen.mpg.de

 

EDUCATION

 

Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Post-doctoral fellow: 2010-present.

 

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia: Ph.D. 2005-2010.

Master’s Thesis: Handedness and reaching ability affect the perception of distance. November 2007

Dissertation: Sizing up the world: Body based perception and the perception of size.

August 2010

 

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia: B.A. in Psychology and Cognitive

Science, 2000-2004.

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Scaling of apparent extents, tool-use and motor simulation, sports performance and perception, handedness and body schema

 

FUNDING, FELLOWSHIPS, AND HONORS

Tandem Project for the Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Co-principle investigator, 2011, 2 years

Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship for Post-Doctoral Researchers, 2011, 2 years

ZiF Conference on Perception and Action Fellow, 2010

Distinguished Teaching Fellowship, 2009

 

PUBLICATIONS AND PRECEEDINGS

Peer Reviewed Manuscripts

Linkenauger, S., Lerner, M.D., Ramenzoni, V., Proffitt, D. (in press). A perceptual-motor deficit predicts social and communicative impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research.

*Graydon, M., Linkenauger, S.A., Teachman, B. & Proffitt, D.R. (in press). Scared stiff: The influence of anxiety on action capabilities. Cognition and Emotion.


Witt, J.K., Linkenauger, S.A. & Proffitt, D.R. (in press). Get me out of this slump!

Visual illusions influence sports performance. Psychological Science.


*Lee, C.L, Linkenauger, S.A., Bakdash, J. Z., Joy-Gaba, J.A., & Proffitt, D.R.

(in press). Putting like a pro: The role of positive contagion in golf. PLoS One.


Linkenauger, S. A., Mohler, B.J. & Proffitt, D.R. (in press). Body-based

perceptual rescaling revealed through the size weight illusion. Perception.

 

Leyrer, M., Linkenauger, S.A., Bülthoff, H.H., Kloos, U., & Mohler, B.J.(2011).The

influence of eye height and avatars on egocentric distance estimates in virtual ­environments, 8th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APVG 2011), ACM Press, New York, NY.

 

Proffitt, D.R. & Linkenauger, S.A. (in press). Perception viewed as a phenotypic

expression. In Tutorials in Action Science (Ed) W. Prinz, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

 

Linkenauger, S.A., Witt, J.K. & Proffitt, D.R. (2011). Taking a Hands-On Approach:Apparent Grasping Ability Scales the Perception of Object Size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.[Epub Ahead].

 

Linkenauger, S.A., Ramenzoni, V.C., & Proffitt, D.R. (2010). Illusory shrinkage and

growth: Body-based rescaling affects the perception of size. Psychological Science, 21.

 

Witt, J. K., Kemmerer, D., Linkenauger, S. A., & Culham, J. (2010).  A functional role

for motor simulation in naming tools.  Psychological Science,21.

Landy, D. & Linkenauger, S. (2010). Arithmetic Notation...Now in 3D! The 32nd

Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Portland, Oregon.

Linkenauger, S.A., Witt, J.K, Bakdash, J.Z., Stefanucci, J.K, & Proffitt, D.R. (2009).

Asymmetrical Body Perception: A Possible Role for Neural Body Representations. Psychological Science, 20.

Linkenauger, S.A., Witt, J.K, Stefanucci, J.K, Bakdash, J.Z. & Proffitt, D.R. (2009).

The effects of handedness and reachability on perceived distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35.

 

*Lessard, D. A., Linkenauger, S.A., & Proffitt, D.R. (2009). Look before you leap:

Jumping ability affects distance perception. Perception, 38.

 

Witt, J.K., Linkenauger, S.A., Bakdash, J.Z., & Proffitt, D. R. (2008).

Putting to a larger hole: golf performance relates to perceived size. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15.

 

Bakdash, J.Z., Linkenauger, S.A., & Proffitt, D.R. (2008). Comparing decision-

making vs. control for learning a virtual environment: Backseat drivers learn where they are going. In Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2008 Conference Proceedings

Witt, J.K., Linkenauger, S.A., Bakdash, J.Z, Augustyn, J.A., Cook, A., &  Proffitt, D.R.

(2008). The long road of pain: Chronic pain increases perceived distance. Experimental Brain Research, 192.

*Indicates undergraduate student whom Sally Linkenauger advised on the research and manuscript

Manuscripts Under Review

*Clarke, E., Linkenauger, S.A., Parasuraman, R., Greenwood, P.M. & Proffitt, D.R.

(under review). Ability modulates distance and slant perception in aquatic environments.

Manuscripts in Preparation

Linkenauger, S.A., Mohler, B.J. & Bülthoff, H.H. (in preparation). Welcome to

wonderland: The Influence of the Size and Shape of a Virtual Hand on the Perceived Size and Shape of Virtual Objects.

 

Linkenauger, S.A., Geuss, M., Mohler, B.J. & Stefanucci, J.K. (in preparation). The

Perception of the Hand is Less Susceptible to Optical Magnification: Evidence for a Perceptual Size Anchor in Near Space.

 

Linkenauger, S.A., Geuss, M., Mohler, B.J. & Stefanucci, J.K. (in preparation).

The perception of the hand is distorted when estimating object size.

Linkenauger, S. A., Zadra, J., Witt, J. K., and Proffitt, D. R. (in preparation).  The effect

of effort to reach and grasp on the distance to targets in near space.

Linkenauger, S. A., Bakdash, J. Z., Stefanucci, J. K., Witt, J. K., and Proffitt, D. R. (in

preparation).Perceived distance influences imagined walking time.

 

Popular Press Coverage for Linkenauger, Witt, Bakdash, Stefanucci and Proffitt (2009)

Observations: A vast right-arm conspiracy: Study suggests handedness many affect body perception

APS Observer Magazine, Volume 22, Number 10, December 2009.

 

A vast right-arm conspiracy: Study suggests handedness many affect body perception (November 5, 2009),

Science Daily, EurekaAlert, PHYSORG.com, AllScienceNews.net!:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091104152304.htm

 

Southpaws have a different view (November 5, 2009)

Psych Central:

http://psychcentral.com/news/2009/11/05/southpaws-have-a-different-view/9354.html

 

Popular Press Coverage for Witt, Linkenauger, Bakdash, and Proffitt (2008)

Hole in the head: Golf and perception (September 8, 2008), Interview,

ScienCentral: http://www.sciencentral.com/video/2008/09/08/hole-in-the-head/

 

Athletes in the zone may see the world differently (August 5, 2008), Technology & Science,

ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/AheadoftheCurve/Story?id=5510786&page=1

 

Do top athletes see the world differently? (July 9, 2008), Interview, The Bryant Park Project on National Public Radio: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=92357048

 

Good golf players see the hole as larger than poor players (July 8, 2008), Science News, Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080707161405.htm

 

 

The secret(s) to better golf (July 8, 2008), Editors’ Blog,

Golf Digest: http://www.golfdigest.com/magazine/blogs/editors/instruction/index.html

 

Study: Perception of hole size influenced by performance (July 7, 2008), Press release from Purdue University, mentioned in EurekaAlert!, e! Science News, and PHYSORG.com: http://www.purdue.edu/uns/x/2008b/080707WittPerception.html

 

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

Linkenauger, S.A. & Mohler, B.J. & Bülthoff, H.H. (2011).  Welcome to Wonderland:  The Apparent Size of the Self-Representing Avatar’s Hands and Arms Influences Perceived Size and Shape in Virtual Environments. Talk presented at the 34th Annual meeting of the European Conference on Visual Perception, Toulouse, France.

Linkenauger, S.A. & Mohler, B.J. & Bülthoff, H.H. (2011).  Welcome to Wonderland:  The Apparent Size of the Self-Representing Avatar’s Hands and Arms Influences Perceived Size and Shape in Virtual Environments. Poster presented at the 10th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Tampa, FL.

Linkenauger, S.A. & Proffitt, D.R. (2008) The Effect of Intention and Bodily

Capabilities on the Perception of Size. Poster presented at the 8th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Tampa, FL.

 

Twedt, E. L.,  Linkenauger, S.A., Banton, T. , Proffitt, D. R (2008).The Effect of Biking

Effort on Perceived Distance and Slant. Poster presented at the 8th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Tampa, FL.

 

Bakdash, J. Z., Linkenauger, S.A., Stefanucci, J.K., Banton. T., & Proffitt, D. R. (2008)

Perceived Distance Influences Simulated Walking Time. Poster presented at the 8th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Tampa, FL.

Linkenauger, S. A. (March 2008).Graspability Influences Size Perception. Talk

presented at the University of Virginia Graduate Research Exhibition, Charlottesville, VA

 

Linkenauger, S.A., Witt, J.K., Bakdash, J.Z., and Proffitt, D.R.(2007) Handedness

effects body schema. Poster presented at the 7th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL.

 

Witt, J.K., Linkenauger, S.A., Bakdash, J.Z., and Proffitt, D.R. (2007) Performance, not

ability, makes the golf hole look as big as a bucket. Poster presented 7th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL.

 

Bakdash, J.Z., Linkenauger, S.A., and Proffitt, D.R. (2006) Separating the two Main

components of active navigation for learning a virtual environment: decision-making and control. Poster presented at the 7th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL.

Linkenauger, S. A. (March 2007).The Effect of Handedness on Body Schema. Talk

presented at the University of Virginia Graduate Research Exhibition, Charlottesville, VA

Linkenauger, S. A. (March 2006).Orientation of Tools and Spatial Perception. Talk

presented at the University of Virginia Graduate Research Exhibition, Charlottesville, VA

Linkenauger, S., Witt, J., Stefanucci, J., & Proffitt, D. (2006). Ease to grasp an object

affects perceived distance. Poster presented 6th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL.

 

Zadra, J. R., Linkenauger, S. A., & Proffitt, D. R. (2006). Effort affects perceived

distance to objects within reach. Poster presented 6th Annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL.

 

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

 

Co-Instructor, Perception and Action: Philosophical Issues from Psychology to Neuroscience, Eberhart Karis University of Tübingen, Fall 2011

 

Instructor, The Structure, Function, and Evolution of Sensory Systems in the Animal Kingdom, University of Virginia, Summer 2010

 

Instructor, The Structure, Function, and Evolution of Sensory Systems in the Animal Kingdom, University of Virginia, Fall 2009

 

Instructor, Introduction to Perception Laboratory, University of Virginia, Fall 2008

 

Guest Lecturer (June 22, 2011).  Eberhart Karis University of Tübingen – Perception and Action- The Ecological Approach to Perception

 

Guest Lecturer (June 7, 2011).  Eberhart Karis University of Tübingen – Workshop on Rational Agency – A Functional Approach to the Perception of Spatial Layout

 

Guest Lecturer (September 19, 2006)- University of Virginia- Introduction to Perception-

Visual Receptive Fields

 

Guest Lecturer (February 6, 2006)- University of Virginia- Introduction to Psychology-

Perception and Action

 

Teaching Assistant, Introduction to Perception, UVA Fall 2007

Teaching Assistant, Introduction to Psychology, UVA Spring 2007

Teaching Assistant, Introduction to Psychology, UVA Spring 2006

 

STUDENT SUPERVISION

Advisor for Master’s Students

 

Markus Leyrer: M.A. Advisor: 2010, “The effect of eye-height and avatars on egocentric distance perception in virtual environments” (Co-advisor with Betty Mohler)

 

Nikola Bubalo: M.A. Advisor: 2011, “Visual recalibration of gait following asymmetrical optic flow” (Co-advisor with Betty Mohler)

 

Primary Advisor for Distinguished Majors Students (Senior Theses)

Meagan Graydon (2009-2010) Psychology undergraduate thesis: “The role of anxiety in the perception of affordances” Under review

David Lessard (2008-2009) Cognitive Science undergraduate thesis, awarded highest distinction: “Look before you leap: The scaling of jumpable extents” Published in Perception

John Rogers (2008-2009) Cognitive Science undergraduate thesis, awarded high distinction: “Taking matters into your own hands: Effect of body scaling on the influence of a size contrast illusion”

 

Charles Lee (2008-2009) Cognitive Science undergraduate thesis, awarded high distinction: “Putting like a pro: the role of positive contagion in golf” In press in PLoS One

Ellen Clarke (2007-2008), Psychology undergraduate thesis, awarded distinction: “The effect of ability on slant perception in aquatic environments” Under review

Melody Esmaldi (2007-2008). Psychology undergraduate thesis, awarded distinction: “The effect of environmental context on the perception of near space”

Noel Dereki (2006-2007), Cognitive Science undergraduate thesis, awarded highest distinction: “The role of tools in automatic motor priming”

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITES

Ad hoc Reviewer

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

Psychological Science

Society Memberships

Vision Sciences Society

American Psychological Society

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Show abstracts

Articles (21):

Leyrer M, Linkenauger SA, Bülthoff HH and Mohler BJ (May-2015) The Importance of Postural Cues for Determining Eye Height in Immersive Virtual Reality PLoS ONE 10(5) 1-23.
Linkenauger SA, Bülthoff HH and Mohler BJ (April-2015) Virtual arm's reach influences perceived distances but only after experience reaching Neuropsychologia 70 393–401.
Leyrer M, Linkenauger SA, Bülthoff HH and Mohler BJ (February-2015) Eye Height Manipulations: A Possible Solution to Reduce Underestimation of Egocentric Distances in Head-Mounted Displays ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 12(1:1) 1-23.
Linkenauger SA, Wong Hy, Geuss M, Stefanucci JK, McCulloch KC, Bülthoff HH, Mohler BJ and Proffitt DR (February-2015) The Perceptual Homunculus: The Perception of the Relative Proportions of the Human Body Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144(1) 103-113.
Linkenauger SA, Geuss MN, Stefanucci JK, Leyrer M, Richardson BH, Proffitt DR, Bülthoff HH and Mohler BJ (November-2014) Evidence for Hand-Size Constancy: The Dominant Hand as a Natural Perceptual Metric Psychological Science 25(11) 2086-2094.
Piryankova IV, Wong HY, Linkenauger SA, Stinson C, Longo MR, Bülthoff HH and Mohler BJ (August-2014) Owning an Overweight or Underweight Body: Distinguishing the Physical, Experienced and Virtual Body PLoS ONE 9(8) 1-13.
Linkenauger SA, Leyrer M, Bülthoff HH and Mohler BJ (July-2013) Welcome to Wonderland: The Influence of the Size and Shape of a Virtual Hand On the Perceived Size and Shape of Virtual Objects PLoS ONE 8(7) 1-16.
Linkenauger S, Lerner MD, Ramenzoni VC and Proffitt D (October-2012) A Perceptual–Motor Deficit Predicts Social and Communicative Impairments in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Research 5(5) 352–362.
Linkenauger S (July-2012) You'll golf better if you think tiger has used your clubs Harvard Business Review 90(7-8) 32-33.
Graydon MM, Linkenauger SA, Teachman B and Proffitt DR (June-2012) Scared stiff: The influence of anxiety on the perception of action capabilities Cognition and Emotion 26(7) 1301-1315.
Witt JK, Linkenauger SA and Proffitt DR (April-2012) Get Me Out of This Slump! Visual Illusions Improve Sports Performance Psychological Science 23(4) 397-399.
Linkenauger SA, Mohler BJ and Proffitt DR (October-2011) Body-based perceptual rescaling revealed through the size-weight illusion Perception 40(10) 1251-1253.
Lee C, Linkenauger SA, Bakdash JZ, Joy-Gaba JA and Profitt DR (October-2011) Putting Like a Pro: The Role of Positive Contagion in Golf Performance and Perception PLoS One 6(10) 1-4.
Linkenauger SA, Witt JK and Proffitt DR (October-2011) Taking a hands-on approach: Apparent grasping ability scales the perception of object size Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37(5) 1432-1441.
Witt JK, Kemmerer D, Linkenauger SA and Culham J (September-2010) A Functional Role for Motor Simulation in Identifying Tools Psychological Science 21(9) 1215-1219.
Linkenauger SA, Ramenconi VC and Proffitt DR (September-2010) Illusory Shrinkage and Growth: Body-Based Rescaling Affects the Perception of Size Psychological Science 21(9) 1318-1325.
Lessard DA, Linkenauger SA and Proffitt DR (December-2009) Look before you leap: Jumping ability affects distance perception Perception 38(12) 1863–1866.
Linkenauger SA, Witt JK, Stefanucci JK, Bakdash JZ and Proffitt DR (December-2009) The effects of handedness and reachability on perceived distance Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 35(6) 1649-1660.
Linkenauger SA, Witt JK, Bakdash JZ, Stefanucci JK and Proffitt DR (November-2009) Asymmetrical Body Perception: A Possible Role for Neural Body Representations Psychological Science 20(11) 1373-1380.
Witt JK, Linkenauger SA, Bakdash JZ, Augustyn JA, Cook A and Proffitt DR (January-2009) The long road of pain: chronic pain increases perceived distance Experimental Brain Research 192(1) 145-148.
Witt JK, Linkenauger SA, Bakdash JZ and Proffitt DR (June-2008) Putting to a larger hole: golf performance relates to perceived size Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 15(3) 581-585.

Conference papers (3):

Leyrer M, Linkenauger SA, Bülthoff HH, Kloos U and Mohler B (August-2011) The influence of eye height and avatars on egocentric distance estimates in immersive virtual environments, 8th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APGV 2011), ACM Press, New York, NY, USA, 67-74.
Landy D and Linkenauger SA (August-2010) Arithmetic Notation…now in 3D! In: Cognition in Flux, , 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSCi 2010), Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX, USA, 2164-2169.
pdf
Bakdash JZ, Linkenauger SA and Proffitt DR (September-2008) Comparing Decision-Making and Control for Learning a Virtual Environment: Backseat Drivers Learn Where They are Going, 52nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES 2008), Sage, London, UK, 2117-2121.

Contributions to books (1):

Proffitt DR and Linkenauger SA: Perception viewed as a phenotypic expression, 171-198. In: Action science: foundations of an emerging discipline, (Ed) W. Prinz, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, (February-2013).
pdf

Posters (6):

Linkenauger S, Mohler B, Proffitt D and Bülthoff HH (August-2012): The Role of Visual Foot Size in Perceiving Object Size from Texture Gradient, 12th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS 2012), Naples, FL, USA, Journal of Vision, 12(9) 902.
Volkova E, Mohler B, Linkenauger S, Alexandrova I and Bülthoff HH (October-17-2011): Contribution of Prosody in Audio-visual Integration to Emotional Perception of Virtual Characters, 12th International Multisensory Research Forum (IMRF 2011), Fukuoka, Japan, i-Perception, 2(8) 774.
Volkova E, Linkenauger S, Alexandrova I, Bülthoff HH and Mohler B (September-2011): Integration of Visual and Auditory Stimuli in the Perception of Emotional Expression in Virtual Characters, 34th European Conference on Visual Perception, Toulouse, France, Perception, 40(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 138.
Leyrer M, Linkenauger SA, Bülthoff HH, Kloos U and Mohler BJ (September-2011): Perception of the size of self and the surrounding visual world in immersive virtual environments, 34th European Conference on Visual Perception, Toulouse, France, Perception, 40(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 209.
Leyrer M, Linkenauger SA, Bülthoff HH, Kloos U and Mohler B (September-2011): The influence of a scaled third-person animated avatar on perception and action in virtual environments, 11th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS 2011), Naples, FL, USA, Journal of Vision, 11(11) 69.
Linkenauger SA, Mohler BJ and Bülthoff HH (September-2011): Welcome to Wonderland: The Apparent Size of the Body Influences Perceived Extents in Virtual Environments, 11th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS 2011), Naples, FL, USA, Journal of Vision, 11(11) 70.

Talks (2):

Linkenauger S, Mohler BJ and Bülthoff HH (September-2011) Abstract Talk: Welcome to wonderland: The apparent size of the self-avatar hands and arms influences perceived size and shape in virtual environments, 34th European Conference on Visual Perception, Toulouse, France, Perception, 40(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 46.
Linkenauger S (June-7-2011) Invited Lecture: A Functional Approach to Perception of Spatial Layout, Inaugural Graduiertenkolleg Workshop: Rational Agency, Tübingen, Germany.

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