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Contact

Dr. Paolo Robuffo Giordano

Address: Spemannstr. 44
72076 Tübingen
Room number: 2.VR.03
E-Mail: Paolo.Robuffo-Giordano

 

Picture of Robuffo Giordano, Paolo, Dr.

Paolo Robuffo Giordano

Position: Project Leader  Unit: Alumni Bülthoff

News

  • 13/5/2010: together with Sami Haddadin (DLR) and Angelika Peer (TUM), I'm organizing the ICRA'11 workshop "Towards Autonomous Physical Human-Robot Interaction" in Shanghai, China. Everyone interested is welcome to attend. The list of speakers can be found here.
  • 29/4/2010: the IEEE Spectrum Magazine published an article on our work on the motion control of the CyberWalk platform, a large planar locomotion device used to explore virtual worlds. Details can be found in this paper (a journal version is under submission).
  • 11/2/2010: submitted the final papers to ICRA’10 on our robot-based Motion Simulator used to reproduce motion of a Ferrari Formula 1 car. A video of a lap on virtual Monza is here.
  • 16/5/2009: ICRA’09 Best Video Award. Together with my former colleagues at DLR, I was awarded for this video submission. My contribution was the modeling and control of the 4-wheeled platform carrying Justin. Details can be found in my ICRA’09 paper “On the Kinematic Modeling and Control of a Mobile Platform Equipped with Steering Wheels and Movable Legs”.

 

Research

I am leading the Human-Robot Interaction group within the Human Perception, Cognition and Action Department of the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics. Please refer to the group's page for more general information about our research, and to our YouTube channel for a collcetion of videos.

 

Short summary

I studied Computer Science Engineering and then obtained a PhD in Systems Theory and Robotics. Widely speaking, my interests have always been

  • modeling from first principles (physics, mechanics, etc.) the behavior of dynamical systems, and studying their structural properties to get insights
  • implementing realistic software simulations of these systems
  • designing control laws that can achieve desired goals for the given models
  • testing and validating all the theoretical claims (both on the modeling and on the control design sides) in the real world

In most cases, the system under study is a physical system that must acquire information from the environment, process them, and then use them to autonomously perform a task. Such a machine is usually known as robot, even though its design may be far away from the popular picture of human-like beings that try to overcome mankind. A car driving autonomously, an airplane with attitude stabilization, a swarm of miniature vehicles exploring an unknown environment are all examples of robots in my mind. The key point here is autonomy: the ability to sense the world, to reason about it, and to autonomously act to achieve some goals.

A big challenge is to bring robots and humans together and have them effectively “cooperate”. From being confined in factories, robots should finally get into our everyday’s life. To realize this vision the role of humans must be taken into account. Robot design and control must be conceived to meet the human needs and to facilitate the interaction. A big research effort should then be devoted to characterize the “human-in-the-loop”: how humans act in a closed-loop fashion when interacting with a (semi-)autonomous machine to fulfill a common goal. This, in general, would require understanding (not at all an exhaustive list):

  • how humans process the sensory information
  • how humans generate motor commands
  • how humans adapt to new situations and learn new skills
  • what is the best physical and cognitive interface between humans and robots
  • what is the best way of presenting information in order to maximize humans’ situational awareness

In my research, I try to address these problems from an engineering point of view. In particular, I would like to use the tools of robotics, system and control theory to model the human-in-the-loop, and to use this knowledge in designing a new generation of autonomous systems that will effectively cooperate with humans.

Introduction

The aim of my research (see also my group's webpage) is to study novel ways to interface humans with robots, i.e., autonomous machines that are able to sense the environment, reason about it, and take actions to perform some tasks. These efforts are guided by the accepted vision that in the future humans and robots will seamlessly cooperate in shared or remote spaces, thus becoming an integral part of our daily life. For instance, robots are expected to relieve us from monotonous and physically demanding work in industrial settings, or help humans in dealing with complex/dangerous tasks, thus augmenting their capabilities. In all the cases of human-robot interaction, it is interesting to study what is the best level of autonomy expected in the robots, and what is the best sensory feedback needed by the humans to take an effective role in the interaction. For instance, in order to exploit their superior cognitive skills, humans should not be overloaded with the execution of many local and low-level tasks. Robots, on the other hand, should be exploited because of their versatility, reliability, motion accuracy, specialization, and task execution speed.

This research group addresses these challenges from an engineering/computer science point of view: our focus in mainly on (i) how to empower robots with the needed autonomy in order to facilitate the interaction with the human side for accomplishing some shared task, and (ii) how to allow a human user to effectively be in control of a robot(s) while performing a task. To this end, we mainly rely on the tools of robotics, systems and control theory, computer vision, and psychophysics.

 

Goals

In a first line of research, we considered the problem of realizing an ideal telepresence system for a human user. Such a system should reproduce the full multisensory flow of information that humans experience through their senses: vision, haptics, hearing, vestibular (self-motion) information, and even smell and taste. While visual and haptics channels have traditionally been exploited in, e.g., many teleoperation settings, little or no attention has been paid to the use of the vestibular channel, i.e., the perception of self linear/angular motion. A central part of our research is devoted to the use of a robotic arm as a motion platform (the so-called CyberMotion simulator) in order to provide vestibular  (self-motion) cues to a human pilot when controlling the motion of a simulated or real vehicle.

A screenshot of the CyberMotion simulator in reproducing the motion of a race car

To this end, we developed novel motion algorithms to exploit an anthropomorphic robot arm as a motion simulator. This was further extended to take into account the simulator actuated cabin which, thanks to its actuation, introduces an extra degree of freedom to the robot actuation system. The CyberMotion simulator was both used to reproduce the feeling of a simulated race car, and to allow a human user to guide and perceive the visual/vestibular motion of a real quadrotor UAV.

 

As a second line of research, we thoroughly investigated the theoretical foundations which allow establishing a bilateral teleoperation channel between a single human operator (master-side) and a group of multiple remote robots (slave-side). Multi-robot systems possess several advantages w.r.t. single robots, e.g., higher performance in simultaneous spatial domain coverage, better affordability as compared to a single/bulky system, robustness against single point failures. In our envisioned scenario, the multi-robot system should possess some level of local autonomy and act as a group, e.g., by maintaining a desired formation, by avoiding obstacles, and by performing additional local tasks. At the same time, the remote human operator should be in control of the overall robot motion and receive, through haptic feedback, suitable cues informative enough of the remote robot/environment state. We addressed two distinct possibilities for the human/multi-robot teleoperation: a top-down approach, and a bottom-up approach, mainly differing in the way the local robot interactions and desired formation shape are treated.

 

In the top-down approach, the robots in the group are abstracted as simple virtual points (VPs) in space teleoperated by the remote human user. The robots collectively move as a deformable flying object, whose shape (chosen beforehand) autonomously deforms, rotates and translates reacting to the presence of obstacles (to avoid them), and the operator commands (to follow them). The operator receives a haptic feedback informing him about the motion state of the robots, and about the presence of obstacles. As a proof of concept, we ran experiments with 3 quadrotor UAVs by only using relative bearings as a source of information.A teleoperation experiment involving a human operator and 4 UAVs

 

In the bottom-up case, the remote human user teleoperates a single leader, while the remaining follower motion is determined by local interactions (modeled as spring/damper couplings) among themselves and the leader, and repulsive interactions with the obstacles. The overall formation shape is not chosen beforehand but is a result of the robot motion. Arbitrary split and rejoin decisions are allowed depending on any criterion, e.g., the robot relative distance and their relative visibility. The operator receives a haptic feedback informing him about the motion state of the leader which is also influenced by the motion of its followers and their interaction with the obstacles. Further extensions of this line of research involved: possibility to maintain the group connectivity in a decentralized way during the motion, and experiments involving 4 quadrotor UAVs and an additional strategy to allow for velocity synchronization among the robots. Finally, our group also addressed preliminary psychophysical evaluations aimed at assessing the human perceptual awareness and maneuverability in the teleoperation of a group of mobile robots.

 

Expected impact

The presented research efforts are aimed at improving in a significant way the quality and easiness of human-robot interaction, in the specific case of a single human user in control of multiple autonomous robots. This will have implications in all those tasks envisaged for robots in the near future such as search and rescue operations, remote inspections of inaccessible sites, remote manipulation in dangerous conditions, and environmental monitoring. In a longer-term perspective, our results could be relevant for more futuristic applications as, for example, teams of nano-robots inspecting the human body from inside, releasing treatments, and performing local micro-surgery in situ.

I was born in Roma, Italy, in 1977.

Education

    • After completing the scientific high school (Liceo) in 1995, I started a 5-year Computer Science Engineering course at the University of Roma “La Sapienza”

    • In 2001 I received the "Laurea" degree (MSc) in Computer Science Engineering from the University of Roma "La Sapienza" (final mark: 110/110 cum laude)

    • In 2004 I obtained a grant for a 3-year Ph.D. course in System Engineering at the University of Roma "La Sapienza" under the supervision of Prof. Alessandro De Luca

    • In 2008 I received the PhD in System Engineering from the University of Roma "La Sapienza"

Professional experience

    • 02. 2002 – 06.2002: I was hired by "La Sapienza" Robotics Lab to work on the visual interception of moving objects for a wheeled mobile robot

    • 07. 2002 – 09.2003: I worked for an Italian space company (ELV) on the modeling and control of VEGA, a launcher for satellites

    • 09.2003 – 08.2004: I moved to Datamat where I focused on the development and testing of real-time code for helicopters

    • 11.07 – 09.08: Post-Doc at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Space Agency (DLR) headed by Prof. Dr. Gerhard Hirzinger

    • 10.08 – present: Project Leader of the Human-Robot Interaction group at the Max Planck Insitute for Biological Cybernetics, Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action (Prof. Dr. Heinrich H. Bülthoff)

Service to the scientific community

Reviewer of the following peer-reviewed journal/conferences

    • IEEE Transactions on Robotics
    • The International Journal of Robotics Research
    • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
    • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology
    • International Journal of Robotics and Automation
    • IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
    • IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
    • IEEE Conference on Decision and Control

Grants

  • 2006 - DAAD research grant for foreign researchers working in Germany

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Show abstracts

Articles (16):

Zelazo D , Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (January-2014) Decentralized Rigidity Maintenance Control with Range-only Measurements for Multi-Robot Systems International Journal of Robotics Research . submitted
Lee D , Franchi A Person, Son HI Person, Ha CS , Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (August-2013) Semiautonomous Haptic Teleoperation Control Architecture of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 18(4) 1334-1345.
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Son HI Person, Franchi A Person, Chuang LL Person, Kim J Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (April-2013) Human-Centered Design and Evaluation of Haptic Cueing for Teleoperation of Multiple Mobile Robots IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics 43(2) 597-609.
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Robuffo Giordano P Person, Franchi A Person, Secchi C and Bülthoff HH Person (March-2013) A Passivity-Based Decentralized Strategy for Generalized Connectivity Maintenance International Journal of Robotics Research 32(3) 299-323.
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De Luca A , Mattone R , Robuffo Giordano P Person, Ulbrich H , Schwaiger M , van Bergh M , Koller-Meier E and van Gool L (March-2013) Motion Control of the CyberCarpet Platform IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 21(2) 410-427.
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Franchi A Person, Secchi C , Son HI Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) Bilateral Teleoperation of Groups of Mobile Robots with Time-Varying Topology IEEE Transaction on Robotics 28(5) 1019-1033.
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Franchi A Person, Masone C Person, Grabe V Person, Ryll M Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) Modeling and Control of UAV Bearing-Formations with Bilateral High-Level Steering International Journal of Robotics Research 31(12) 1504-1525.
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Franchi A Person, Secchi C , Ryll M Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (September-2012) Shared Control: Balancing Autonomy and Human Assistance with a Group of Quadrotor UAVs IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 19(3) 57-68.
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Soyka F Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Barnett-Cowan M Person and Bülthoff HH Person (July-2012) Modeling direction discrimination thresholds for yaw rotations around an earth-vertical axis for arbitrary motion profiles Experimental Brain Research 220(1) 89-99.
Souman JL Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Schwaiger M , Frissen I Person, Thümmel T , Ulbrich H , De Luca A , Bülthoff HH Person and Ernst M Person (November-2011) CyberWalk: Enabling unconstrained omnidirectional walking through virtual environments ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 8(4:25) 1-22.
Soyka F Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Beykirch K Person and Bülthoff HH Person (March-2011) Predicting direction detection thresholds for arbitrary translational acceleration profiles in the horizontal plane Experimental Brain Research 209(1) 95-107.
Souman JL Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Frissen I Person, Luca AD and Ernst MO Person (February-2010) Making virtual walking real: perceptual evaluation of a new treadmill control algorithm Transactions on Applied Perception 7(2:11) 1-14.
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Robuffo Giordano P Person and Vendittelli M (October-2009) Shortest paths to obstacles for a polygonal Dubins car IEEE Transactions on Robotics 25(5) 1184-1191.
De Luca A , Oriolo G and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2008) Feature Depth Observation for Image-based Visual Servoing: Theory and Experiments The International Journal of Robotics Research 27(10) 1093-1116.
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De Luca A , Oriolo G and Robuffo Giordano P Person (March-2007) Image-based visual servoing schemes for nonholonomic mobile manipulators Robotica 25(2) 131-145.
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Robuffo Giordano P Person, Vendittelli M , Laumond J-P and Souères P (September-2006) Nonholonomic distance to polygonal obstacles for a car-like robot of polygonal shape IEEE Transactions on Robotics 22(5) 1040-1047.
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Conference papers (61):

Zelazo D , Franchi A Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (June-2014) Rigidity Theory in SE(2) for Unscaled Relative Position Estimation using only Bearing Measurements 13th European Control Conference (ECC 2014), 1-6.
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Masone C Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Franchi A Person (June-2014) Semi-autonomous Trajectory Generation for Mobile Robots with Integral Haptic Shared Control IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2014), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1-8.
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Grabe V Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (November-2013) A comparison of scale estimation schemes for a quadrotor UAV based on optical flow and IMU measurements IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2013), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 5193-5200.
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Spica R Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Ryll M Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Franchi A Person (November-2013) An Open-Source Hardware/Software Architecture for Quadrotor UAVs 2nd Workshop on Research, Education and Development of Unmanned Aerial Systems (RED-UAS 2013), 198-205.
Antonelli G , Cataldi E Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Chiaverini S and Franchi A Person (November-2013) Experimental validation of a new adaptive control scheme for quadrotors MAVs IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2013), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2439-2444.
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Nestmeyer T Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person and Franchi A Person (September-2013) Human-assisted Parallel Multi-target Visiting in a Connected Topology 6th International Workshop on Human-Friendly Robotics (HFR 2013), 1-2.
Grabe V Person, Riedel M Person, Bülthoff HH Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person and Franchi A Person (September-2013) The TeleKyb Framework for a Modular and Extendible ROS-based Quadrotor Control 6th European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR 2013), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 19-25.
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Antonelli G , Arrichiello F , Chiaverini S and Robuffo Giordano P Person (July-2013) Adaptive trajectory tracking for quadrotor MAVs in presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM 2013), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1337-1342.
Zelazo D , Franchi A Person, Allgöwer P , Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (July-2013) Rigidity Maintenance Control for Multi-Robot Systems In: Robotics: Science and Systems VIII, 2012 Robotics: Science and Systems Conference, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 473-480.
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Secchi C , Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (May-2013) Bilateral Control of the Degree of Connectivity in Multiple Mobile-robot Teleoperation IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2013), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 3645-3652.
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Ryll M Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (May-2013) First Flight Tests for a Quadrotor UAV with Tilting Propellers IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2013), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 295-302.
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Nestmeyer T Person, Riedel M Person, Lächele J Person, Hartmann S Person, Botschen F Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person and Franchi A Person (May-2013) Interactive Demo: Haptic Remote Control of Multiple UAVs with Autonomous Cohesive Behavior ICRA 2013 Workshop Towards Fully Decentralized Multi-Robot Systems: Hardware, Software and Integration, 1-3.
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Nestmeyer T Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person and Franchi A Person (May-2013) Multi-target Simultaneous Exploration with Continual Connectivity ICRA 2013 International Workshop on Crossing the Reality Gap: From Single to Multi- to Many Robot Systems, 1.
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Lächele J Person, Riedel M Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person and Franchi A Person (May-2013) SwarmSimX and TeleKyb: Two ROS-integrated Software Frameworks for Single- and Multi-Robot Applications ICRA 2013 Workshop Towards Fully Decentralized Multi-Robot Systems: Hardware, Software and Integration, 1-3.
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Riedel M Person, Franchi A Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Son HI Person (2013) Experiments on Intercontinental Haptic Control of Multiple UAVs In: Intelligent Autonomous Systems 12, 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-12), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 227-238.
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Franchi A Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (December-2012) Decentralized Control of Parallel Rigid Formations with Direction Constraints and Bearing Measurements 51th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 5310-5317.
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Lächele J Person, Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (November-2012) SwarmSimX: Real-time Simulation Environment for Multi-robot Systems In: Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots, 3rd International Conference on Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR 2012), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 375-387.
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Franchi A Person, Masone C Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) A Synergetic High-level/Reactive Planning Framework with Application to Human-Assisted Navigation 2012 IEEE IROS Workshop on Robot Motion Planning: Online, Reactive, and in Real-time, 15-20.
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Spica R Person, Franchi A Person, Oriolo G , Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) Aerial Grasping of a Moving Target with a Quadrotor UAV IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 4985-4992.
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Masone C Person, Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano R Person (October-2012) Interactive Planning of Persistent Trajectories for Human-Assisted Navigation of Mobile Robots IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2641-2648.
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Riedel M Person, Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) Intercontinental haptic control and advanced supervisory interfaces for groups of multiple UAVs 5th Workshop for Young Researchers on Human-Friendly Robotics (HFR 2012), 1.
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Grabe V Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) Robust Optical-Flow Based Self-Motion Estimation for a Quadrotor UAV IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2153-2159.
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Masone C Person, Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (October-2012) Shared trajectory planning for human-in-the-loop navigation of mobile robots in cluttered environments 5th International Workshop on Human-Friendly Robotics (HFR 2012), 1.
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Nesti A Person, Masone C Person, Barnett-Cowan M Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Pretto P Person (September-2012) Roll rate thresholds and perceived realism in driving simulation Driving Simulation Conference Europe (DSC 2012), INRETS, Bron, France, 1-6.
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Secchi C , Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (May-2012) Bilateral teleoperation of a group of UAVs with communication delays and switching topology IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 4307-4314.
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Ryll M Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (May-2012) Modeling and Control of a Quadrotor UAV with Tilting Propellers IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 4606-4613.
Grabe V Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (May-2012) On-board velocity estimation and closed-loop control of a quadrotor UAV based on optical flow IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2012), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 491-497.
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Franchi A Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (December-2011) Distributed Online Leader Selection in the Bilateral Teleoperation of Multiple UAVs 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference (CDC - ECC 2011), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 3559-3565.
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Franchi A Person, Masone C Person, Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (September-2011) Bilateral teleoperation of multiple UAVs with decentralized bearing-only formation control IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2011), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2215-2222.
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Robuffo Giordano P Person, Franchi A Person, Secchi C and Bülthoff HH Person (September-2011) Experiments of passivity-based bilateral aerial teleoperation of a group of UAVs with decentralized velocity synchronization IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2011), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 163-170.
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Son HI Person, Chuang LL Person, Franchi A Person, Kim J Person, Lee D , Lee S-W , Bülthoff HH Person and Robuffo Giordano P Person (September-2011) Measuring an Operator's Maneuverability Performance in the Haptic Teleoperation of Multiple Robots IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2011), IEEE, Piscatawy, NJ, USA, 3039-3046.
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Robuffo Giordano P Person (July-2011) Decentralized Bilateral Aerial Teleoperation of Multiple UAVs – Part I: a Bottom-up Perspective RSS 2011 Workshop “3D Exploration, Mapping, and Surveillance with Aerial Robots”, 1-11.
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Son HI Person, Kim J Person, Chuang LL Person, Franchi A Person, Robuffo Giordano P Person, Lee D and Bülthoff HH Person (June-2011) An Evaluation of Haptic Cues on the Tele-Operator's Perceptual Awareness of Multiple UAVs' Environments IEEE 2011 World Haptics Conference (WHC 2011), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 149-154.
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Robuffo Giordano P Person, Franchi A Person, Secchi C and Bülthoff HH Person (June-2011) Bilateral Teleoperation of Groups of UAVs with Decentralized Connectivity Maintenance In: Robotics: Science and Systems VII, 2011 Robotics: Science and Systems Conference, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 273-280.
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Last updated: Friday, 17.01.2014