This file was created by the Typo3 extension sevenpack version 0.7.14 --- Timezone: CEST Creation date: 2017-05-23 Creation time: 10-52-43 --- Number of references 137 book 4962 Strategies of Orientation in Environmental Spaces 2008 260 Freiburg i. Br., Univ., Diss., 2008 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.logos-verlag.de/cgi-bin/engbuchmid?isbn=1997&lng=deu&id= Logos Verlag
Berlin, Germany
MPI Series in Biological Cybernetics ; 22 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft PhD en 978-3-8325-1997-1 meilingerTMeilinger
book 2541 Kompetenzerwerb für Informationssysteme: Einfluss des Lernprozesses auf die Interaktion mit Fahrerinformationssystemen 2004 4 169 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de https://www.vda.de/de/services/Publikationen/fat-schriftenreihe-184.html Verband der Automobilindustrie
Berlin, Germany
FAT-Schriftenreihe ; 184 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Verkehrswissenschaften (IZVW), Würzburg ITotzke H-PKrüger MHofmann meilingerTMeilinger NRauch GSchmidt
article KonigSKGKWLEBWKNMBWBK2016 Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception PLoS ONE 2016 12 11 12 1-35 Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0166647&type=printable 10.1371/journal.pone.0166647 e0166647 SUKönig FSchumann JKeyser CGoeke CKrause SWache ALytochkin MEbert VBrunsch BWahn KKaspar SKNagel meilingerTMeilinger hhbHHBülthoff TWolbers CBüchel PKönig article MeilingerSB2016 Qualitative differences in memory for vista and environmental spaces are caused by opaque borders, not movement or successive presentation Cognition 2016 10 155 77–95 Two classes of space define our everyday experience within our surrounding environment: vista spaces, such as rooms or streets which can be perceived from one vantage point, and environmental spaces, for example, buildings and towns which are grasped from multiple views acquired during locomotion. However, theories of spatial representations often treat both spaces as equal. The present experiments show that this assumption cannot be upheld. Participants learned exactly the same layout of objects either within a single room or spread across multiple corridors. By utilizing a pointing and a placement task we tested the acquired configurational memory. In Experiment 1 retrieving memory of the object layout acquired in environmental space was affected by the distance of the traveled path and the order in which the objects were learned. In contrast, memory retrieval of objects learned in vista space was not bound to distance and relied on different ordering schemes (e.g., along the layout structure). Furthermore, spatial memory of both spaces differed with respect to the employed reference frame orientation. Environmental space memory was organized along the learning experience rather than layout intrinsic structure. In Experiment 2 participants memorized the object layout presented within the vista space room of Experiment 1 while the learning procedure emulated environmental space learning (movement, successive object presentation). Neither factor rendered similar results as found in environmental space learning. This shows that memory differences between vista and environmental space originated mainly from the spatial compartmentalization which was unique to environmental space learning. Our results suggest that transferring conclusions from findings obtained in vista space to environmental spaces and vice versa should be made with caution. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027716301500 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.06.003 meilingerTMeilinger mstrickrodtMStrickrodt hhbHHBülthoff article MeilingerW2016 Multiple Strategies for Spatial Integration of 2D Layouts within Working Memory PLoS ONE 2016 4 11 4 1-22 Prior results on the spatial integration of layouts within a room differed regarding the reference frame that participants used for integration. We asked whether these differences also occur when integrating 2D screen views and, if so, what the reasons for this might be. In four experiments we showed that integrating reference frames varied as a function of task familiarity combined with processing time, cues for spatial transformation, and information about action requirements paralleling results in the 3D case. Participants saw part of an object layout in screen 1, another part in screen 2, and reacted on the integrated layout in screen 3. Layout presentations between two screens coincided or differed in orientation. Aligning misaligned screens for integration is known to increase errors/latencies. The error/latency pattern was thus indicative of the reference frame used for integration. We showed that task familiarity combined with self-paced learning, visual updating, and knowing from where to act prioritized the integration within the reference frame of the initial presentation, which was updated later, and from where participants acted respectively. Participants also heavily relied on layout intrinsic frames. The results show how humans flexibly adjust their integration strategy to a wide variety of conditions. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0154088.PDF 10.1371/journal.pone.0154088 e0154088 meilingerTMeilinger KWatanabe article JungTWdBBM2016 The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments Frontiers in Psychology 2016 3 7 217 1-9 People maintain larger distances to other peoples’ front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars) and moved a virtual plane towards their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away) as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2016/Frontiers-Psychol-2016-Jung.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00217/full 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00217 ejungEJung KTakahashi KWatanabe delarosaSde la Rosa MVButz hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger article MeilingerFSBB2015 Not all memories are the same: Situational context influences spatial recall within one’s city of residency Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 2016 2 23 1 246-252 Reference frames in spatial memory encoding have been examined intensively in recent years. However, their importance for recall has received considerably less attention. In the present study, passersby used tags to arrange a configuration map of prominent city center landmarks. It has been shown that such configurational knowledge is memorized within a north-up reference frame. However, participants adjusted their maps according to their body orientations. For example, when participants faced south, the maps were likely to face south-up. Participants also constructed maps along their location perspective—that is, the self–target direction. If, for instance, they were east of the represented area, their maps were oriented west-up. If the location perspective and body orientation were in opposite directions (i.e., if participants faced away from the city center), participants relied on location perspective. The results indicate that reference frames in spatial recall depend on the current situation rather than on the organization in long-term memory. These results cannot be explained by activation spread within a view graph, which had been used to explain similar results in the recall of city plazas. However, the results are consistent with forming and transforming a spatial image of nonvisible city locations from the current location. Furthermore, prior research has almost exclusively focused on body- and environment-based reference frames. The strong influence of location perspective in an everyday navigational context indicates that such a reference frame should be considered more often when examining human spatial cognition. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2016/meilinger_et_al_2016_situated_maps_pre_final_version.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758%2Fs13423-015-0883-7.pdf 10.3758/s13423-015-0883-7 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein nadinesimonNSimon hhbHHBülthoff brescianiJ-PBresciani article MeilingerSFHLMB2016 How to best name a place? Facilitation and inhibition of route learning due to descriptive and arbitrary location labels Frontiers in Psychology 2016 1 7 76 1-7 Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before – wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections’ names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression). Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections’ names were descriptive and participants’ route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2016/Frontiers-Psychol-2016-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00076/full 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00076 meilingerTMeilinger jspJSchulte-Pelkum frankensteinJFrankenstein GHardiess naimaNLaharnar hamHAMallot hhbHHBülthoff article MeilingerFWBH2014_2 Reference frames in learning from maps and navigation Psychological Research 2015 11 79 6 1000-1008 In everyday life, navigators often consult a map before they navigate to a destination (e.g., a hotel, a room, etc.). However, not much is known about how humans gain spatial knowledge from seeing a map and direct navigation together. In the present experiments, participants learned a simple multiple corridor space either from a map only, only from walking through the virtual environment, first from the map and then from navigation, or first from navigation and then from the map. Afterwards, they conducted a pointing task from multiple body orientations to infer the underlying reference frames. We constructed the learning experiences in a way such that map-only learning and navigation-only learning triggered spatial memory organized along different reference frame orientations. When learning from maps before and during navigation, participants employed a map- rather than a navigation-based reference frame in the subsequent pointing task. Consequently, maps caused the employment of a map-oriented reference frame found in memory for highly familiar urban environments ruling out explanations from environmental structure or north preference. When learning from navigation first and then from the map, the pattern of results reversed and participants employed a navigation-based reference frame. The priority of learning order suggests that despite considerable difference between map and navigation learning participants did not use the more salient or in general more useful information, but relied on the reference frame established first. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2015/Psychol-Res-2015-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00426-014-0629-6.pdf 10.1007/s00426-014-0629-6 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein KWatanabe hhbHHBülthoff CHölscher article MeilingerFB2014 When in doubt follow your nose: a wayfinding strategy Frontiers in Psychology 2014 11 5 1363 1-7 Route selection is governed by various strategies which often allow minimizing the required memory capacity. Previous research showed that navigators primarily remember information at route decision points and at route turns, rather than at intersections which required straight walking. However, when actually navigating the route or indicating directional decisions, navigators make fewer errors when they are required to walk straight. This tradeoff between location memory and route decisions accuracy was interpreted as a “when in doubt follow your nose” strategy which allows navigators to only memorize turns and walk straight by default, thus considerably reducing the number of intersections to memorize. These findings were based on newly learned routes. In the present study we show that such an asymmetry in route memory also prevails for planning routes within highly familiar environments. Participants planned route sequences between locations in their city of residency by pressing arrow keys on a keyboard. They tended to ignore straight walking intersections, but they ignored turns much less so. However, for reported intersections participants were quicker at indicating straight walking than turning. Together with results described in the literature, these findings suggest that a “when in doubt follow your nose strategy” is applied also within highly familiar spaces and might originate from limited working memory capacity during planning a route. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2014/Frontiers-Psychol-2014-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01363/full 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01363 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein hhbHHBülthoff article MeilingerRB2013 Local and global reference frames for environmental spaces Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 2014 3 67 3 542-569 Two experiments examined how locations in environmental spaces, which cannot be overseen from one location, are represented in memory: by global reference frames, multiple local reference frames, or orientation-free representations. After learning an immersive virtual environment by repeatedly walking a closed multisegment route, participants pointed to seven previously learned targets from different locations. Contrary to many conceptions of survey knowledge, local reference frames played an important role: Participants performed better when their body or pointing targets were aligned with the local reference frame (corridor). Moreover, most participants turned their head to align it with local reference frames. However, indications for global reference frames were also found: Participants performed better when their body or current corridor was parallel/orthogonal to a global reference frame instead of oblique. Participants showing this pattern performed comparatively better. We conclude that survey tasks can be solved based on interconnected local reference frames. Participants who pointed more accurately or quickly additionally used global reference frames. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2014/QJEP-2014.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17470218.2013.821145#.UwdVTs6P6QB 10.1080/17470218.2013.821145 meilingerTMeilinger bernieBERiecke hhbHHBülthoff article MeilingerFB2013 Learning to navigate: Experience versus maps Cognition 2013 10 129 1 24–30 People use “route knowledge” to navigate to targets along familiar routes and “survey knowledge” to determine (by pointing, for example) a target’s metric location. We show that both root in separate memories of the same environment: participants navigating through their home city relied on representations and reference frames different from those they used when doing a matched survey task. Tübingen residents recalled their way along a familiar route to a distant target while located in a photorealistic virtual 3D model of Tübingen, indicating their route decisions on a keyboard. Participants had previously done a survey task (pointing) using the same start points and targets. Errors and response latencies observed in route recall were completely unrelated to errors and latencies in pointing. This suggests participants employed different and independent representations for each task. Further, participants made fewer routing errors when asked to respond from a horizontal walking perspective rather than a constant aerial perspective. This suggests that instead of the single reference, north-up frame (similar to a conventional map) they used in the survey task, participants employed different, and most probably multiple, reference frames learned from “on the ground” navigating experience. The implication is that, within their everyday environment, people use map or navigation-based knowledge according to which best suits the task. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2013/Cognition-2013-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027713001121 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.05.013 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein hhbHHBülthoff article MeilingerB2013 Verbal Shadowing and Visual Interference in Spatial Memory PLoS ONE 2013 9 8 9 1-9 Spatial memory is thought to be organized along experienced views and allocentric reference axes. Memory access from different perspectives typically yields V-patterns for egocentric encoding (monotonic decline in performance along with the angular deviation from the experienced perspectives) and W-patterns for axes encoding (better performance along parallel and orthogonal perspectives than along oblique perspectives). We showed that learning an object array with a verbal secondary task reduced W-patterns compared with learning without verbal shadowing. This suggests that axes encoding happened in a verbal format; for example, by rows and columns. Alternatively, general cognitive load from the secondary task prevented memorizing relative to a spatial axis. Independent of encoding, pointing with a surrounding room visible yielded stronger W-patterns compared with pointing with no room visible. This suggests that the visible room geometry interfered with the memorized room geometry. With verbal shadowing and without visual interference only V-patterns remained; otherwise, V- and W-patterns were combined. Verbal encoding and visual interference explain when W-patterns can be expected alongside V-patterns and thus can help in resolving different performance patterns in a wide range of experiments. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2013/PLoS-ONE-2013-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action;jsessionid=6D9BB63DDFE16522A4806F41F9C4AB88?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0074177&representation=PDF 10.1371/journal.pone.0074177 e74177 meilingerTMeilinger hhbHHBülthoff article TakahashiMWB2013 Psychological influences on distance estimation in a virtual reality environment Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2013 8 7 580 1-7 Researches on embodied perception have revealed that social, psychological and physiological factors influence perception of space. While many of these influences were observed with real or highly realistic stimuli, the present work showed that even the orientation of abstract geometric objects with a non-realistic virtual environment could influence distance perception. Observers wore a head mounted display and watched virtual cones moving within an invisible cube for five seconds with their head movement recorded. Subsequently, observers estimated the distance to the cones or evaluated their friendliness. The cones either faced the observer, a target behind the cones, or random orientations. Average viewing distance to the cones varied between 1.2 and 2.0 m. At a viewing distance of 1.6 m, observers perceived cones facing them as closer than cones facing an opposite target or random orientations. Furthermore, irrespective of viewing distance, observers moved their head away from the cones more strongly and evaluated the cones as less friendly when the cones were facing observers. Similar results of distance estimation were obtained with a 3D projection onto a large screen, although the effective viewing distance was farther away. These results suggest that factors other than physical distance could influence distance perception even with non-realistic geometric objects within a virtual environment. Furthermore, the modulation of distance perception was also accompanied by changes in subjective impression and avoidance movement. We propose that cones facing an observer are perceived as socially discomforting or threatening and potentially violate an observer’s personal space, which might influence the perceived distance of cones. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2013/FHN-2013-Takahashi.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/DownloadFile.ashx?pdf=1&FileId=323188&articleId=57033&Version=1&ContentTypeId=58&FileName=Provisional%20PDF.pdf 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00580 KTakahashi meilingerTMeilinger KWatanabe hhbHHBülthoff article BarnettCowanMVTB2011 MPI CyberMotion Simulator: Implementation of a Novel Motion Simulator to Investigate Multisensory Path Integration in Three Dimensions Journal of Visualized Experiments 2012 5 63 1-6 Path integration is a process in which self-motion is integrated over time to obtain an estimate of one's current position relative to a starting point 1. Humans can do path integration based exclusively on visual 2-3, auditory 4, or inertial cues 5. However, with multiple cues present, inertial cues - particularly kinaesthetic - seem to dominate 6-7. In the absence of vision, humans tend to overestimate short distances (<5 m) and turning angles (<30°), but underestimate longer ones 5. Movement through physical space therefore does not seem to be accurately represented by the brain. Extensive work has been done on evaluating path integration in the horizontal plane, but little is known about vertical movement (see 3 for virtual movement from vision alone). One reason for this is that traditional motion simulators have a small range of motion restricted mainly to the horizontal plane. Here we take advantage of a motion simulator 8-9 with a large range of motion to assess whether path integration is similar between horizontal and vertical planes. The relative contributions of inertial and visual cues for path navigation were also assessed. 16 observers sat upright in a seat mounted to the flange of a modified KUKA anthropomorphic robot arm. Sensory information was manipulated by providing visual (optic flow, limited lifetime star field), vestibular-kinaesthetic (passive self motion with eyes closed), or visual and vestibular-kinaesthetic motion cues. Movement trajectories in the horizontal, sagittal and frontal planes consisted of two segment lengths (1st: 0.4 m, 2nd: 1 m; ±0.24 m/s2 peak acceleration). The angle of the two segments was either 45° or 90°. Observers pointed back to their origin by moving an arrow that was superimposed on an avatar presented on the screen. Observers were more likely to underestimate angle size for movement in the horizontal plane compared to the vertical planes. In the frontal plane observers were more likely to overestimate angle size while there was no such bias in the sagittal plane. Finally, observers responded slower when answering based on vestibular-kinaesthetic information alone. Human path integration based on vestibular-kinaesthetic information alone thus takes longer than when visual information is present. That pointing is consistent with underestimating and overestimating the angle one has moved through in the horizontal and vertical planes respectively, suggests that the neural representation of self-motion through space is non-symmetrical which may relate to the fact that humans experience movement mostly within the horizontal plane. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.jove.com/pdf/default.aspx?PDF=&ID=3436 10.3791/3436 e3436 mbcMBarnett-Cowan meilingerTMeilinger vidalMVidal teufelHTeufel hhbHHBülthoff article FrankensteinMBM2011 Is the Map in Our Head Oriented North? Psychological Science 2012 2 23 2 120-125 We examined how a highly familiar environmental space—one’s city of residence—is represented in memory. Twenty-six participants faced a photo-realistic virtual model of their hometown and completed a task in which they pointed to familiar target locations from various orientations. Each participant’s performance was most accurate when he or she was facing north, and errors increased as participants’ deviation from a north-facing orientation increased. Pointing errors and latencies were not related to the distance between participants’ initial locations and the target locations. Our results are inconsistent with accounts of orientation-free memory and with theories assuming that the storage of spatial knowledge depends on local reference frames. Although participants recognized familiar local views in their initial locations, their strategy for pointing relied on a single, north-oriented reference frame that was likely acquired from maps rather than experience from daily exploration. Even though participants had spent significantly more time navigating the city than looking at maps, their pointing behavior seemed to rely on a north-oriented mental map. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2012/Psychol-Sci-2012-Frankenstein.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://pss.sagepub.com/content/23/2/120.full.pdf+html 10.1177/0956797611429467 frankensteinJFrankenstein mohlerBJMohler hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger article 4958 From Isovists via Mental Representations to Behaviour: First Steps Toward Closing the Causal Chain Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 2012 1 39 1 48-62 This paper addresses the interactions between human wayfinding performance, the mental representation of routes, and the geometrical layout of path intersections. The conclusions of this paper are based on the results of a virtual reality empirical experiment. The study consisted of a route-learning and reproduction task and two choice reaction tasks measuring the acquired knowledge of route decision points. In order to relate the recorded behaviour to the geometry of the environment, a specific adaptation of an isovist-based spatial analysis that accounts for directional bias in human spatial perception and representation was developed. The analyses applied provided conclusive evidence of correspondences between the geometrical properties of environments as captured by isovists and their mental representations. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2012/Environment-Planning-B-2012-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.envplan.com/epb/fulltext/b39/b34048t.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1068/b34048t meilingerTMeilinger gfGFranz hhbHHBülthoff article 5643 The integration of spatial information across different viewpoints Memory & Cognition 2011 8 39 6 1042-1054 The integration of spatial information perceived from different viewpoints is a frequent, yet largely unexplored, cognitive ability. In two experiments, participants saw two presentations, each consisting of three targets—that is, illuminated tiles on the floor—before walking the shortest possible path across all targets. In Experiment 1, participants viewed the targets either from the same viewpoint or from different viewpoints. Errors in recalling targets increased if participants changed their viewpoints between presentations, suggesting that memory acquired from different viewpoints had to be aligned for integration. Furthermore, the error pattern indicates that memory for the first presentation was transformed into the reference frame of the second presentation. In Experiment 2, we examined whether this transformation occurred because new information was integrated already during encoding or because memorized information was integrated when required. Results suggest that the latter is the case. This might serve as a strategy for avoiding additional alignments. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Memory-Cognition-2011-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.springerlink.com/content/147416m6637051k2/fulltext.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.3758/s13421-011-0088-x meilingerTMeilinger malteJMWiener ABerthoz article 6429 Spatial and temporal aspects of navigation in two neurological patients NeuroReport 2010 7 21 10 685-689 We present two cases (A.C. and W.J.) with navigation problems resulting from parieto-occipital right hemisphere damage. For both the cases, performance on the neuropsychological tests did not indicate specific impairments in spatial processing, despite severe subjective complaints of spatial disorientation. Various aspects of navigation were tested in a new virtual reality task, the Virtual Tübingen task. A double dissociation between spatial and temporal deficits was found; A.C. was impaired in route ordering, a temporal test, whereas W.J. was impaired in scene recognition and route continuation, which are spatial in nature. These findings offer important insights in the functional and neural architecture of navigation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com/sp-3.2.3a/ovidweb.cgi?&S=PPLCFPGNELDDPDDMNCDLPCOBBDLMAA00&WebLinkReturn=Full+Text%3dL%7cS.sh.15.17%7c0%7c00001756-201007140-00004&PDFLink=FPDDNCOBPCDMEL00%7c%2ffs047%2fovft%2flive%2fgv024%2f00001756%2f00001756-201007140-00004&PDF Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32833aea78 IJMvan der Ham MJEvan Zandvoort meilingerTMeilinger SEBosch NKant APostma article 4961 Adaptivity of wayfinding strategies in a multi-building ensemble: The effects of spatial structure, task requirements, and metric information Journal of Environmental Psychology 2009 6 29 2 208-219 This study investigates the adaptivity of wayfinding strategies in a real-world setting of a multi-building ensemble. Familiarity with the environment, map usage and verbal vs. visual task instructions were systematically varied. Measures included path choices, wayfinding performance and information usage. Thirty-two participants had to find eight goals in a multi-level building ensemble consisting of two distinctive building parts. It was tested whether the standard wall-mounted floor maps found in the majority of public buildings can help navigation in a complex unknown environment. Unfamiliar users tried to make use of these plans more frequently, but were not able to compensate for spatial knowledge deficits compared to participants familiar with the setting. Two strategies of multi-level wayfinding were compared with respect to a region-based hierarchical planning approach. Strategy selection could be shown to be highly adaptive to spatial properties of the environment as well as characteristics of the task instruction, i.e., spatial precision of target information. Overall, the strategy of moving horizontally into the target building prior to vertical travel was shown to be more effective in this multi-building setting. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&amp;amp;_imagekey=B6WJ8-4SRKMMV-1-1&amp;amp;_cdi=6872&amp;amp;_user=29041&amp;amp;_orig=search&amp;amp;_coverDate=06%2F13%2F2008&amp;amp;_sk=999999999&amp;amp;view=c&amp;amp;wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzV&amp;amp;md5=a570 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.05.010 CHölscher SJBüchner meilingerTMeilinger GStrube article 3857 Ask for Directions or Use a Map: a Field Experiment on Spatial Orientation and Wayfinding in an Urban Environment Journal of Spatial Science 2008 12 53 2 13-23 When planning a route we usually study a map, ask other people for verbal directions, or use a route planner. Which source of information is most helpful? This experiment investigated human wayfinding and knowledge acquisition in urban environments. Participants were required to retrace two different routes learned either from route maps, or from verbal directions. This research shows that both maps and verbal directions are equally useful tools for conveying wayfinding knowledge. Even the survey knowledge of map-learners was not better. The authors argue that both verbal directions and maps are memorized in a language-based format, which is mainly used for wayfinding. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Meilinger_3857[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14498596.2008.9635147 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1080/14498596.2008.9635147 meilingerTMeilinger knauffMKnauff article 4957 Working memory in wayfinding: a dual task experiment in a virtual city Cognitive Science 2008 6 32 4 755-770 This study examines the working memory systems involved in human wayfinding. In the learning phase 24 participants learned two routes in a novel photorealistic virtual environment displayed on a 220° screen, while they were disrupted by a visual, a spatial, a verbal or - in a control group - no secondary task. In the following wayfinding phase the participants had to find and to "virtually walk" the two routes again. During this wayfinding phase a number of dependent measures were recorded. We show that encoding wayfinding knowledge interfered with the verbal and with the spatial secondary task. These interferences were even stronger than the interference of wayfinding knowledge with the visual secondary task. These findings are consistent with a dual coding approach of wayfinding knowledge. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Cognitive-Science-2008-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a793518292~fulltext=713240930 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1080/03640210802067004 meilingerTMeilinger knauffMKnauff hhbHHBülthoff article 3858 Up the down staircase: next term Wayfinding strategies in multi-level buildings Journal of Environmental Psychology 2006 12 26 4 284-299 The intention of this article is to create a link between human spatial cognition research and architectural design. We conducted an empirical study with human subjects in a complex multi-level building and compared thinking aloud protocols and performance measures of experienced and inexperienced participants in different wayfinding tasks. Three specific strategies for navigation in multi-level buildings were compared. The central point strategy relies on well-known parts of the building; the direction strategy relies on routes that first head towards the horizontal position of the goal, while the floor strategy relies on routes that first head towards the vertical position of the goal. We show that the floor strategy was preferred by experienced participants over the other strategies and was overall tied to better wayfinding performance. Route knowledge showed a greater impact on wayfinding performance compared to survey knowledge. A cognitive-architectural analysis of the building revealed seven possible c auses for navigation problems. Especially the previous termstaircasenext term design was identified as a major wayfinding obstacle. Finally we address the benefits of cognitive approaches for the architectural design process and describe some open issues for further research. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&amp;amp;_imagekey=B6WJ8-4MWPVCF-1-1&amp;amp;_cdi=6872&amp;amp;_user=29041&amp;amp;_orig=search&amp;amp;_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2006&amp;amp;_sk=999739995&amp;amp;view=c&amp;amp;wchp=dGLzVzz-zSkWA&amp;amp;md5=4f07 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.09.002 CHölscher meilingerTMeilinger GVrachliotis MBrösamle knauffMKnauff article 2467 How the presence of passengers influences the risk of a collision with another vehicle Accident Analysis and Prevention 2002 9 34 5 649-654 The risk of a collision with another vehicle due to the presence of passengers is analysed in detail in a large sample of accidents from Mittelfranken, Germany, from the years 1984 to 1997. Using a responsibility analysis, the overall effect of the presence of passengers and the influence of modifying variables is examined. While a general protective effect of the presence of passengers is found, this is reduced in young drivers, during darkness, in slow traffic and at crossroads, especially when disregarding the right of way and passing a car. These findings are interpreted as a general positive effect of the presence of passengers who influence the driver&lsquo;s behaviour towards more cautious and thus safer driving behaviour. However, passengers may also distract drivers’ attention in an amount which cannot be compensated for in all situations and by all drivers by cautious driving. Besides educational measure, a potential solution to this problem may be driver assistance systems which give an adapted kind of support when passengers are present. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V5S-46D2DY2-9-1&_cdi=5794&_user=29041&_pii=S0001457501000641&_orig=browse&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2002&_sk=999659994&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlz-zSkzk&md5=4b11e84d25d07ca4970d39ee3f1eb1bc&ie=/sdarticle.pdf 5 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft en 10.1016/S0001-4575(01)00064-1 MVollrath meilingerTMeilinger H-PKrüger inproceedings Meilinger2015_2 How do people memorize and recall spatial knowledge within their city of residency? 2015 11 9 12-13 People use “route knowledge” to navigate to targets along familiar routes and “survey knowledge” to determine (by pointing, for example) a target’s metric location. We examined within which coordinate systems route and survey knowledge is represented in memory. Data suggests that navigators memorize survey knowledge of their city of residency (Fig1) within a single, north-oriented reference frame learned from maps. (1). However, when they recall this knowledge while located within the city, they spontaneously adjusted this knowledge towards their current body orientation and location relative to the recalled area – probably to have the information ready for later action (2). Contrary to survey knowledge, route knowledge of one’s home city was memorized in different representations relying on multiple, local, street-based coordinate systems presumably learned from navigation. (3). When recalling this knowledge to plan a route, navigators concentrate on turns and employ a “when-in-doubt-follow-your-nose” default strategy in order to not get lost (4). Taken together, our results suggest that people coordinate multiple representations of their surrounding environment and adjust these to their current situation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://ign.ku.dk/english/outreach-publications/conferences-seminars/human-mobility-cognition-and-gisc/ Skov-Petersen, H. University of Copenhagen: Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management
Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark Conference on Human Mobility, Cognition and GISc 978-87-7903-715-1 meilingerTMeilinger
inproceedings StrickrodtM2015 Movement, successive presentation and environmental structure and their influence on spatial memory in vista and environmental space 2015 11 9 33-34 A vista space (VS), e.g., a room, is perceived from one vantage point, whereas an environmental space (ES), e.g., a building, is experienced successively during movement. Participants learned the same object layout by walking through multiple corridors (ES) or within a differently oriented room (VS). In four VS conditions they either learned a fully or a successively visible object layout, and either from a static position or by walking through the environment along a path, mirroring the translation in ES. Afterwards, participants pointed between object locations in different body orientations and reproduced the object layout. Pointing latency in ES increased with the number of corridors to the target and pointing performance was best along corridor-based orientations. In VS conditions latency did not increase with distance and pointing performance was best along room-based orientations, which were oblique to corridor and walking orientations. Furthermore, ES learners arranged the layout in the order they experienced the objects, and less so VS learners. Most beneficial pointing orientations, distance and order effects suggest that spatial memory in ES is qualitatively different from spatial memory in VS and that differences in the visible environment (spatial structure) rather than movement or successive presentation are responsible for that. Our results are in line with the dissociation of vista and environmental space as postulated by Montello (1993. Furthermore, our study provides a behavioral foundation for the application of isovists when conducting visual integration analysis, which is one module of the space syntax approach (e.g., Hillier, 1999). http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://ign.ku.dk/english/outreach-publications/conferences-seminars/human-mobility-cognition-and-gisc/ Skov-Petersen, H. University of Copenhagen: Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management
Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark Conference on Human Mobility, Cognition and GISc 978-87-7903-715-1 mstrickrodtMStrickrodt meilingerTMeilinger
inproceedings MeilingerSFBB2015 Global Landmarks Do Not Necessarily Improve Spatial Performance in Addition to Bodily Self-Movement Cues when Learning a Large-Scale Virtual Environment 2015 10 25-28 Comparing spatial performance in different virtual reality setups can indicate which cues are relevant for a realistic virtual experience. Bodily self-movement cues and global orientation information were shown to increase spatial performance compared with local visual cues only. We tested the combined impact of bodily and global orientation cues by having participants learn a virtual multi corridor environment either by only walking through it, with additional distant landmarks providing heading information, or with a surrounding hall relative to which participants could determine their orientation and location. Subsequent measures on spatial memory only revealed small and non-reliable differences between the learning conditions. We conclude that additional global landmark information does not necessarily improve user's orientation within a virtual environment when bodily-self-movement cues are available. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2015/ICAT-EGVE-2015-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.ic-at.org/2015/#program Imura, M. , P. Figueroa, B.J. Mohler Eurographics Association
Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland
Kyoto, Japan 25th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and the 20h Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments (ICAT-EGVE 2015) 978-3-905674-84-2 10.2312/egve.20151306 meilingerTMeilinger jspJSchulte-Pelkum frankensteinJFrankenstein bergerDBerger hhbHHBülthoff
inproceedings GarsoffkyMHS2015 The influence of a moving camera on the perception of distances between moving objects 2015 5 4 55 Movies and especially animations, where cameras can move nearly without any restriction, often use moving cameras, thereby intensifying continuity [Bor02] and influencing the impression of cinematic space [Jon07]. Further studies effectively use moving cameras to explore perception and processing of real world action [HUGG14]. But what is the influence of simultaneous multiple movements of actors and camera on basic perception and understanding of film sequences? It seems reasonable to expect that understanding of object movement is easiest from a static viewpoint, but that nevertheless moving viewpoints can be partialed out during perception. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2853782 Bares, W. , M. Christie, R. Ronfard Eurographics Association
Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland
Zürich, Switzerland 4th Workshop on Intelligent Camera Control, Cinematography and Editing (WICED 2015) 978-3-905674-79-8 10.2312/wiced.20151078 BGarsoffky meilingerTMeilinger choreisCHoreis SSchwan
inproceedings BastenMM2012 Mental Travel Primes Place Orientation in Spatial Recall 2012 9 378-385 The interplay of spatial long-term and working memories and the role of oriented and orientation-independent representations is an important but poorly understood issue in spatial cognition. Using a novel priming paradigm, we demonstrate that spatial working memory codes of a given location depend on previous tasks such as mental travels and are thus situated in behavioural context. In two experiments, 136 passersby were asked to sketch an image of a highly familiar city square either without or with prior metal travel, i.e. an imaginated walk along a route crossing the square. With prior mental travel participants drew the sketch more often in the orientation of the imagined route and less often in the orientation found without prior mental travel. This indicates that participants adjusted or selected information from long-term memory according to the situational context. We suggest that orientation priming plays a role in path planning and may facilitate way-finding afterwards. Possible mechanisms of orientation priming are discussed with respect to theories of orientation dependence in spatial memory. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2012/SC-2012-Basten.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-642-32732-2_24.pdf Stachniss, C. , K. Schill, D. Uttal Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 7463 Spatial Cognition VIII Kloster Seeon, Germany International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2012) 978-3-642-32731-5 10.1007/978-3-642-32732-2_24 bastenKBasten meilingerTMeilinger hamHAMallot
inproceedings HensonMBM2011 When do we integrate spatial information acquired by walking through environmental spaces? 2011 7 2764-2769 The present study examined whether spatial information of a novel environment was integrated within a reference frame during initial learning, or only later when required for pointing to other targets. Twenty-two participants repeatedly walked through a multi-corridor virtual environment, presented via a head-mounted display. At several stages within the learning process they were teleported to locations along the route and asked to self-localize and point to other locations. Pointing was faster during later tests as well as for closer targets, both of which might require less integration. Participants tested only after extended exposure (late pointers) took longer than participants who had received testing interspersed throughout the same amount of exposure (early pointers). Pointing latency did not differ between groups when comparing performance on their first pointing test, despite vastly different exposure. These results are inconsistent with the assumption that participants already integrated spatial information within a single reference frame during learning and simply accessed this information during testing. Rather, spatial integration is a time consuming process which is not necessarily undertaken if not required. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2011/CogSci-2011-Henson.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/Proceedings/2011/index.html Carlson, L. , C. Hoelscher, T.F. Shipley Cognitive Science Society
Austin, TX, USA
Expanding the Space of Cognitive Science Boston, MA, USA 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2011) 978-1-61839-097-4 ahensonAHenson hamHAMallot hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger
inproceedings 6428 Putting Egocentric and Allocentric into Perspective 2010 8 207-221 In the last decade many studies examined egocentric and allocentric spatial relations. For various tasks, navigators profit from both kinds of relations. However, their interrelation seems to be underspecified. We present four elementary representations of allocentric and egocentric relations (sensorimotor contingencies, egocentric coordinate systems, allocentric coordinate systems, and perspective-free representations) and discuss them with respect to their encoding and retrieval. Elementary representations are problematic for capturing large spaces and situations which encompass both allocentric and egocentric relations at the same time. Complex spatial representations provide a solution to this problem. They combine elementary coordinate representations either by pair-wise connections or by hierarchical embedding. We discuss complex spatial representations with respect to computational requirements and their plausibility regarding behavioral and neural findings. This work is meant to clarify concepts of egocentric and allocentric, to show their limitations, benefits and empirical plausibility and to point out new directions for future research. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/SC-2010-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.spatial-cognition-2010.com/index.html Hölscher, C. , T. F. Shipley, M. Olivetti Belardinelli, J. A. Bateman, N. S. Newcombe Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 6222 Spatial Cognition VII Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Portland, OR, USA International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2010) en 978-3-642-14749-4 10.1007/978-3-642-14749-4_19 meilingerTMeilinger vosgerauGVosgerau
inproceedings 6426 The Direction Bias and the Incremental Construction of Survey Knowledge 2010 8 2500-2505 This study examines how spatial memory acquired from navigation is used to perform a survey task involving pointing. Participants learned a route through a virtual city by walking it multiple times in one direction on an omnidirectional treadmill. After learning, they were teleported to several locations along the route, self-localized and pointed to multiple other locations along the route. Pointing was done away from or towards the current location. Preliminary data show that participants were faster in pointing away. This suggests that pointing was based on an incremental process rather than an all-at-once process which is consistent with mentally walking through a cognitive map or constructing a mental model of currently non-visible areas of the city. On average participants pointed faster to targets located further down the route towards the end than to targets located route upwards towards the start. Analysis of individual performance showed that more participants than expected by chance showed such an effect of target direction also in their pointing accuracy. The direction of this effect differed between participants. These direction biases suggest that at least some participants encoded the environmental space by multiple interconnected locations and used this representation also for pointing. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/COGSCI2010-Meilinger_6426[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://cognitivesciencesociety.org/conference2010/index.html Ohlsson, S. , R. Catrambone Cognitive Science Society
Austin, TX, USA
Cognition in Flux Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Portland, OR, USA 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2010) en 978-0-9768318-6-0 meilingerTMeilinger hhbHHBülthoff
inproceedings 5709 Spatial Memory for Highly Familiar Environments 2009 8 2650-2655 In this experiment we examined orientation dependency in human memory for a highly familiar environmental space. Twenty-seven inhabitants living for at least two years in Tübingen saw a photorealistic virtual model of the city center (Virtual Tübingen) through a head-mounted display. They were teleported to five different initial locations in Virtual Tübingen and asked to point towards well-known target locations. This procedure was repeated in twelve different body-orientations for each of the initial locations. Participants pointed more accurately when oriented northwards regardless of the initial location. We also found a small effect of local orientation. The more participants were aligned with the street leading to the target location the better was their pointing performance. Even though the strong alignment effect with a global orientation is predicted by reference direction theory, this theory does not predict that this global orientation is, first, common for almost all participants, and second, t hat this orientation is north. We discuss our results with respect to well-known theories of spatial memory and speculate that the bias we find for north orientation is due to participants relying on memory of a city map of Tübingen for their pointing response. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/CogSci2009-Frankenstein_5709[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/proceedings/2009/index.html Taatgen, N. , H. Van Rijn Cognitive Science Society
Austin, TX, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Amsterdam, Netherlands 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2009) en 978-0-9768318-5-3 frankensteinJFrankenstein meilingerTMeilinger mohlerBJMohler hhbHHBülthoff
inproceedings 5181 The Network of Reference Frames Theory: A Synthesis of Graphs and Cognitive Maps 2008 9 344-360 The network of reference frames theory explains the orientation behavior of human and non-human animals in directly experienced environmental spaces, such as buildings or towns. This includes self-localization, route and survey navigation. It is a synthesis of graph representations and cognitive maps, and solves the problems associated with explaining orientation behavior based either on graphs, maps or both of them in parallel. Additionally, the theory points out the unique role of vista spaces and asymmetries in spatial memory. New predictions are derived from the theory, one of which has been tested recently. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/network_of_reference_frames_theory_%20prefinal_draft_5181[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://conference.spatial-cognition.de/sc08/ Freksa, C. , N. S. Newcombe, P. Gärdenfors, S. Wölfl Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 5248 Spatial Cognition VI: Learning, Reasoning, and Talking about Space Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Freiburg, Germany International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2008) en 978-3-540-87601-4 10.1007/978-3-540-87601-4_25 meilingerTMeilinger
inproceedings 5517 Virtual Reality as a Valuable Research Tool for Investigating Different Aspects of Spatial Cognition 2008 9 1-3 The interdisciplinary research field of spatial cognition has benefited greatly from the use of advanced Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. Such tools have provided the ability to explicitly control specific experimental conditions, manipulate variables not possible in the real world, and provide a convincing, multimodal experience. Here we will first describe several of the VR facilities at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Biological Cybernetics that have been developed to optimize scientific investigations related to multi-modal self-motion perception and spatial cognition. Subsequently, we will present some recent empirical work contributing to these research areas. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Bulthoff%20et%20al%20Spatial%20Cognition%202008_[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://conference.spatial-cognition.de/sc08/ Freksa, C. , N. S. Newcombe, P. Gärdenfors, S. Wölfl Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 5248 Spatial Cognition VI: Learning, Reasoning, and Talking about Space Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Freiburg, Germany International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2008) en 978-3-540-87600-7 10.1007/978-3-540-87601-4_1 hhbHHBülthoff camposjlJLCampos meilingerTMeilinger
inproceedings 5099 The Integration of Spatial Information across Different Perspectives 2008 7 2031-2036 The integration of spatial information across different perspectives or viewpoints is a frequent spatial task, yet relatively little is known about it. In the present study, participants were shown three target locations from one point of view. After walking away, they either returned to the same location or to a novel location before being presented with three additional target locations. Their task was to plan and navigate the shortest possible path to visit all six target locations. To successfully solve the task, participants had to integrate different pieces of spatial information acquired from two viewpoints. We measured errors and the time to reach the first target. An increased number of errors in the condition including a perspective shift strongly suggest that participants encoded different views which had to be aligned in order to be integrated. The fact that the increase in errors primarily originated from the target locations presented first, indicates that the first view was transformed into the perspective of the second view. Neither egocentric updating, allocentric orientation-independent memory, nor allocentric reference axis theory can explain these results. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/integration%20of%20spatial%20information%20across%20different%20perspectives_5099[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/proceedings/2008/forms/contents6.htm Lawrence Erlbaum
New York, NY, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Cognitive Science Society Washigton, DC, USA 30th Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2008) en 978-1-605-60542-5 malteJMWiener meilingerTMeilinger ABerthoz
inproceedings 4120 How Much Information Do You Need?: Schematic Maps in Wayfinding and Self Localisation 2007 11 381-400 The paper is concerned with the empirical investigation of different types of schematised maps. In two experiments a standard floor plan was compared to three strongly schematised maps providing only route knowledge. With the help of one of the maps, the participants had to localise themselves in two tasks and performed two wayfinding tasks in a multi-level building they didn’t know before. We recorded map usage time and a range of task performance measures. Although the map provided much less information, participants performed better in wayfinding with an unambiguous schematic map than with a floor plan. In the self localisation tasks, participants performed equally well with the detailed floor plan and with the schematised map versions. Like the users of a schematic map, users of a floor map presumably oriented on the network structure rather than on local geometric features. This allows them to limit the otherwise potentially very large search space in map-based self localisation. In both types of tasks participants looked at the schematised maps for a shorter time. Providing less than standard information like in a highly schematised map can lead to better performance. We conclude that providing unambiguous turning information (route knowledge) rather than survey knowledge is most crucial for wayfinding in unknown environments. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/SC-2006-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://conference.spatial-cognition.de/sc06/ Barkowsky, T. , M. Knauff, G. Ligozat, D. R. Montello Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 4387 Spatial Cognition V: Reasoning, Action, Interaction Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Bremen, Germany International Conference on Spatial Cognition (SC 2006) en 978-3-540-75666-8 10.1007/978-3-540-75666-8_22 meilingerTMeilinger CHölscher SJBüchner MBrösamle
inproceedings 4121 Map Use and Wayfinding Strategies in a Multi-Building Ensemble 2007 11 365-380 This experiment investigated the role of familiarity, map usage and instruction on wayfinding strategies and performance. 32 participants had to find eight goals in a multilevel building ensemble consisting of two distinctive vertical segments. Generally users who were familiar with the building ensemble outperformed first-time visitors of the setting. We tested if the standard wall-mounted floor maps found in the majority of public buildings can help navigation in a complex unknown environment. Unfamiliar users tried to make use of these plans more frequently, but were not able to compensate for spatial knowledge deficits through them. Two strategies of across-level wayfinding are compared with respect to a region-based hierarchical planning approach. Strategy selection relied largely on task and instruction characteristics. Overall, the strategy of moving horizontally into the target section of the building prior to vertical travel was shown to be more effective in this multi-building setting. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://conference.spatial-cognition.de/sc06/ Barkowsky, T. , M. Knauff, G. Ligozat, D. R. Montello Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 4387 Spatial Cognition V: Reasoning, Action, Interaction Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Bremen, Germany International Conference on Spatial Cognition (SC 2006) en 978-3-540-75666-8 10.1007/978-3-540-75666-8_21 CHölscher SJBüchner meilingerTMeilinger GStrube
inproceedings 4119 From Isovists via Mental Representations to Behaviour: First Steps Toward Closing the Causal Chain 2007 9 65-80 This study addresses the interrelations between human wayfinding performance, the mental representation of routes, and the geometrical layout of path intersections. The virtual reality based empirical experiment consisted of a route learning and reproduction task and two choice reaction tasks measuring the acquired knowledge of route decision points. In order to relate the recorded behavioural data to the geometry of the environment, a specific adaptation of isovist-based spatial analysis was developed that accounts for directional bias in human spatial perception and representation. Taken together, the applied analyses provided conclusive evidence for correspondences between geometrical properties of environments as captured by isovists and their mental representation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/isovt_[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.space.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/events/sc06/ Hölscher, C. , R.C. Dalton, A. Turner Universität Bremen
Bremen, Germany
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Bremen, Germany Space Syntax and Spatial Cognition Workshop (Spatial Cognition '06) en 978-3-88722-691-7 meilingerTMeilinger gfGFranz hhbHHBülthoff
inproceedings 4439 Orientation Specificity in Long-Term-Memory for Environmental Spaces 2007 8 479-484 This study examined orientation specificity in long-term human memory for environmental spaces. Twenty participants learned an immersive virtual environment by walking a multi-segment route in one direction. The environment consisted of seven corridors within which target objects were located. In the testing phase, participants were teleported to different locations in the environment and were asked to identify their location and heading and then point towards previously learned targets. As predicted by viewdependent theory, participants pointed more accurately when oriented in the direction in which they originally learned each corridor. No support was found for a global reference direction underlying the memory of the whole layout or for an exclusive orientation-independent memory. We propose a "network of reference frames" theory to integrate elements of the different theoretical positions. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/orientation%20specificity%20in%20environmental%20spaces%20final_4439[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/proceedings/2007/ Curran
Red Hook, NY, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Nashville, TN, USA 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2007) en 978-1-605-60507-4 meilingerTMeilinger bernieBERiecke hhbHHBülthoff
inproceedings 4777 Signs and Maps: Cognitive Economy in the Use of External Aids for Indoor Navigation 2007 8 377-382 Wayfinding in public buildings often proves to be a challenge especially for first time visitors. The experiment investigates the relative effectiveness and efficiency of external aids for navigation in a complex multi-level, multi-building ensemble. A previous experiment provided the performance baseline for the re-design and prototype evaluation of the information system. Navigation aids were tested in three conditions: maps, signs, and the combination of both. With respect of usage a preference for signs over maps was identified. Also, signage had the largest impact on wayfinding performance, while maps alone showed the smallest level of support and the combination provided yet further improvement. Analysis of individual tasks identifies limitations of each type of external aid. A comparative task analyses reveals higher cognitive costs of maps relative to signs. The results are discussed in a framework of cognitive economics and agent nationality, explaining both usage preference & performance differences. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/CogSci2007-377_4777[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/csjarchive/proceedings/2007/ Lawrence Erlbaum
New York, NY, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Nashville, TN, USA 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2007) en 978-1-605-60507-4 CHölscher SJBüchner MBrösamle meilingerTMeilinger GStrube
inproceedings 3855 Working memory in wayfinding: a dual task experiment in a virtual city 2006 7 585-590 This study examines the working memory systems involved in human wayfinding. In the learning phase 24 participants learned two routes in a novel photorealistic virtual environment displayed on a 220° screen, while they were disrupted by a visual, a spatial, a verbal or - in a control group - no secondary task. In the following wayfinding phase the participants had to find and to "virtually walk" the two routes again. During this wayfinding phase a number of dependent measures were recorded. We show that encoding wayfinding knowledge interfered with the verbal and with the spatial secondary task. These interferences were even stronger than the interference of wayfinding knowledge with the visual secondary task. These findings are consistent with a dual coding approach of wayfinding knowledge. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/working_memory_in_wayfinding_3855[1].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/~rsun/cogsci2006/ Sun, R. Lawrence Erlbaum
Mahwah, NJ, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Vancouver, BC, Canada 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2006) en 978-1-605-60500-5 meilingerTMeilinger knauffMKnauff hhbHHBülthoff
inproceedings 3636 Adaptivität und Adaptierbarkeit von menügesteuerten Informationssystemen - Kein Ansatz zur Lösung des Problems der Erlernbarkeit?! Zustandserkennung und Systemgestaltung. 2005 9 35-40 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Urbas, C. , C. Steffens VDI-Verlag
Düsseldorf
Zustandserkennung und Systemgestaltung. 6. Berliner Werkstatt Mensch-Maschine-Systeme Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zustandserkennung und Systemgestaltung. de ITotzke meilingerTMeilinger H-PKrüger
inproceedings 3362 Wayfinding with Maps and Verbal Directions 2005 7 1473-1478 This experiment investigated the role of the source of information as well as the route complexity for wayfinding performance and wayfinding knowledge acquired. Participants had to find a complex and a simple route in an unknown city with figural instructions (map) and verbal instructions (directions). The participants reported transforming the map into verbal directions; therefore no general difference between the instructions was found. On oblique intersections which were difficult to code verbally participants recalling the map tended to perform better but built up worse route knowledge. Figural information from the map was only used for wayfinding or pointing if these tasks could not be solved otherwise. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/CogSci-2005-Meilinger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/proceedings/2005/docs/p1473.pdf Bara, B.G. , L. Barsalou, M. Bucciarelli Lawrence Erlbaum
Mahwah, NJ, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Stresa, Italy XXVII Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2005) 0-8058-5991-8 meilingerTMeilinger
inproceedings VrachliotisHM2005 Building analysis from a spatial cognition perspective 2005 6 1-8 This short paper focuses on the application of concepts and methods of Spatial Cognition to building analysis. We investigate the close relationship between spatial knowledge and built environment by combining theoretical analysis with user comments and behavioral data. Based on an empirical study in a complex multi-level-building two main aspect of navigational space are considered: architectural features of the building and cognitive processes of the user. Seven possible causes for navigation problems are discussed; especially the staircase design is identified as a major wayfinding obstacle. Finally we address further benefits of cognitive approaches for the architectural design process. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Space-Syntax-2005-Meilnger.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.tudelft.nl/en/current/latest-news/article/detail/5th-international-space-syntax-symposium-aan-tu-delft/ Delft, The Netherlands 5th International Space Syntax Symposium GVrachliotis CHölscher meilingerTMeilinger inproceedings 3215 The Floor Strategy: Wayfinding Cognition in a Multi-Level Building 2005 6 823-824 This short paper is concerned with strategies and cognitive processes of wayfinding in public buildings. We conducted an empirical study in a complex multi-level building, comparing performance measures of experienced and inexperienced participants in different wayfinding tasks. Thinking aloud protocols provided insights into navigation strategies, planning phases, use of landmarks and signage. Three specific strategies for navigation in multi-level buildings were compared. The cognitively efficient floor strategy was preferred by experts over a central-point strategy or a direction strategy, and overall was associated to better wayfinding performance. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Space-Syntax-5-Hoelscher.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.spacesyntax.tudelft.nl/posters.html Van Nes, A. Techne Press
Delft, Netherlands
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Delft, Netherlands 5th International Space Syntax Symposium 90-8594-002-8 CHölscher meilingerTMeilinger GVrachliotis knauffMKnauff
inproceedings 2948 Finding the Way Inside: Linking Architectural Design Analysis and Cognitive Processes 2005 2 1-23 The paper is concerned with human wayfinding in public buildings. Two main aspects of wayfinding difficulties are considered: architectural features of the building and cognitive processes of the agent. We conducted an empirical study in a complex multi-level building, comparing performance measures of experienced and inexperienced participants in different wayfinding tasks. Thinking aloud protocols provide insights into navigation strategies, planning phases, use of landmarks and signage, and measures of survey knowledge. Specific strategies for navigation in multi-level buildings, like the floor strategy, are identified and evaluated. An architectural analysis of the building is provided and possible causes for navigation problems are discussed. Different architectural features of the building are investigated with respect to human spatial cognition and usability issues. Finally we address potential benefits for the architectural design process and discuss options for further research. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.springerlink.com/content/bq290y8dvjeaa05g/fulltext.pdf Freksa, C. , M. Knauff, B. Krieg-Brückner, B. Nebel, T. Barkowsky Springer
Berlin, Germany
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 3343 Spatial Cognition IV: Reasoning, Action, Interaction Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Frauenchiemsee, Germany International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2004) 978-3-540-32255-9 10.1007/978-3-540-32255-9_1 CHoelscher meilingerTMeilinger GVrachliotis MBroesamle knauffMKnauff
inproceedings 2458 Erlernbarkeit von Menüsystemen im Fahrzeug: mehr als "nur" eine Lernkurve [Learnability of Menu Systems in Vehicles: Beyond a Learning Curve] 2003 6 171-195 This article contributes to the understanding of how menu-driven information systems in vehicles are learned and which system-immanent and user-immanent attributes influence the learning process. Presentation mode and ambiguity of lexical structures e.g. turned out to be relevant system attributes, concerning user attributes previous knowledge, attitude towards and interest in techniques as well as cognitive speed in information processing played an important role. Empirical studies show that users do not only acquire lexical knowledge about a menu system but also construe some kind of a "spatial imagery" of the system. In addition, the design of the operating device affects the learnability of the system. Thus, lexical, spatial and motor representations of the menu system influence the learning process significantly. At the same time the importance of user attributes has to be considered. Therefore, observing the learnability of information systems in vehicles goes beyond the mere consideration of a learning curve. In fact, learning a menu system is a multi-coded process in which lexical, spatial and motor representations of users have to be considered as important factors relevant to learning. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.psychologie.uni-wuerzburg.de/izvw/texte/2003_totzke_meilinger_Erlernbarkeit_von_Men%C3%BCsystemen.pdf VDI-Verlag
Düsseldorf, Germany
VDI-Berichte ; 1768 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Braunschweig, Germany Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert: Anforderungen, Anwendungen, Aspekte für Mensch-Maschine-Systeme ITotzke meilingerTMeilinger H-PKrüger
inbook HardlessMM2014 Virtual Reality and Spatial Cognition 2015 25 133-137 In this article, the significance of virtual reality within the field of spatial cognition is outlined. The role of virtual reality is grouped in three sections addressing (1) the current and latest technology of virtual reality regarding the two main functions within virtual reality, that is, technology to interact with virtuality (input devices used to record observer actions and output devices used to simulate sensory stimuli) and technology for presenting the virtual environments to the user, (2) the usage of this technology for the purpose of research in the field of spatial cognition regarding behavioral and neuronal processes (discussing advantages and disadvantages of virtual reality), and (3) virtual reality experiments and their results that are relevant in current research of spatial cognition covering place memory, wayfinding in large-scale spaces, and the neural representations of spatial features. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2015/hardiess_et_al_2015_virtual_reality_and_spatial_cognition.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080970868430989 Wright, James D. Elsevier Science
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2. ed. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 978-0-08-100414-2 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.43098-9 GHardless meilingerTMeilinger hamHAMallot
inbook VosgerauKMV2013 Repräsentation 2013 9 386-401 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2013/vosgerau_et_al_2013_repraesentation_proof.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff https://www.metzlerverlag.de/index.php?mod=bookdetail&isbn=978-3-476-02331-5 Stephan, A. , S. Walter Metzler
Stuttgart, Germany
Handbuch Kognitionswissenschaft 978-3-476-02331-5 vosgerauGVosgerau AKnoll meilingerTMeilinger KVogeley
techreport 4490 A novel immersive virtual environment setup for behavioural experiments in humans, tested on spatial memory for environmental spaces 2007 3 158 We present a summary of the development of a new virtual reality setup for behavioural experiments in the area of spatial cognition. Most previous virtual reality setups can either not provide accurate body motion cues when participants are moving in a virtual environment, or participants are hindered by cables while walking in virtual environments with a head-mounted display (HMD). Our new setup solves these issues by providing a large, fully trackable walking space, in which a participant with a HMD can walk freely, without being tethered by cables. Two experiments on spatial memory are described, which tested this setup. The results suggest that environmental spaces traversed during wayfinding are memorised in a view-dependent way, i.e., in the local orientation they were experienced, and not with respect to a global reference direction. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/mpik-tr-158_[0].pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany en meilingerTMeilinger bernieBERiecke bergerDBerger hhbHHBülthoff poster MeilingerFBMSB2016 Wie erinnern wir räumliches Wissen unseres Wohnortes? 2016 9 19 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Research Group Mohler http://www.dgpskongress.de/frontend/index.php?page_id=453 Leipzig, Germany 50. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs 2016) meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein brescianiJ-PBresciani mohlerBMohler nadinesimonNSimon hhbHHBülthoff poster O039MalleyBM2016 Spatial integration within environmental spaces: Testing predictions from mental walk and mental model 2016 8 4 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://sites.temple.edu/sc16/schedule-of-event/ Philadelphia, PA, USA International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2016) momalleyMO'Malley hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger poster StrickrodtBM2016 Beyond the border: Separation of space influences memory structure of an object layout 2016 8 2 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff https://sites.temple.edu/sc16/files/2016/03/Poster-Session-1-3.pdf Philadelphia, PA, USA International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2016) mstrickrodtMStrickrodt hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger poster HintereckerLZBBM2016 Gravity as a universal reference direction? Influences on spatial memory for vertical object locations 2016 8 2 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff https://sites.temple.edu/sc16/files/2016/03/Poster-Session-1-3.pdf Philadelphia, PA, USA International Conference Spatial Cognition (SC 2016) thintereckerTHinterecker cleroyCLeroy mzhaoMZhao MButz hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger poster MeilingerSHCSFd2016 Using Virtual Reality to Examine Social and Spatial Cognition 2016 7 27 The goal of social and spatial cognition is the understanding of human behavior when humans interact with their natural social and spatial environment. In contrast to this, many studies in the field examine social and spatial cognition under controlled but artificial conditions in which participants are passive observers rather than active agents. Here we present several projects in which we use virtual reality to increase the naturalness of the experimental testing conditions, while keeping the experimental set up under high experimental control. Due to the use of virtual reality and related techniques participants are able to naturally interact with their environment (e.g. walk through spaces, high five with an avatar) while we alter the visual stimuli in real-time in response to their behavior by means of motion tracking. Using this approach we combine experimental rigor with increased ecological validity to learn about the cognitive processes actualy taking place in life. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.vr-workshop-tuebingen.org/Schedule.html Tübingen, Germany Virtual Environments: Current Topics in Psychological Research: VECTOR Workshop meilingerTMeilinger mstrickrodtMStrickrodt thintereckerTHinterecker dongD-SChang asaultonASaulton lfademrechtLFademrecht delarosaSde la Rosa poster StanglMPSBW2015 Triggers of entorhinal grid cell and hippocampal place cell remapping in humans 2015 10 19 45 437.04 Navigating the environment requires the integration of distance, direction, and place information, which critically depends on hippocampal place and entorhinal grid cells. Studies in rodents have shown, however, that substantial changes in the environment’s surroundings can trigger a change in the set of active place cells, accompanied by a rotation of the grid cell firing pattern (Fyhn et al., 2007) - a phenomenon commonly referred to as global remapping. In the present study, we investigated whether human grid and place cells show a similar remapping behavior in response to environmental changes and whether different episodes in the same environment might cause remapping as well. In two experiments, participants underwent 3T fMRI scanning while they navigated a virtual environment, comprising two different rooms in which objects were placed in random locations. Participants explored the first room and learned these object-location conjunctions (learning-phase), after which the objects disappeared and participants were asked to navigate repeatedly to the different object locations (test-phase). This procedure (i.e. a learning- and test-phase within a room) was repeated several times, separated by different events, such as leaving and re-entering the same room, or moving to the second, different room. Indicators of grid cell firing were derived from the BOLD activation while participants moved within the virtual environment, whereas indicators of place cell firing were derived from the activation patterns while participants were standing at particular object locations. We compared these indicators between the different rooms and events to investigate how these manipulations influence remapping. Overall, our findings demonstrate entorhinal grid cell and hippocampal place cell remapping in humans. Furthermore, our results suggest that beside environmental changes, also other events (e.g., re-entering the same environment) might evoke remapping. We conclude that, in humans, remapping is not only environment-based but also event-based and might serve as a neural mechanism to create distinct memory traces for episodic memory formation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sfn.org/am2015/ Chicago, IL, USA 45th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2015) MStangl meilingerTMeilinger antopiaA-APape johannesJSchultz hhbHHBülthoff TWolbers poster delaRosaLSSMBC2015 Motor planning and control: Humans interact faster with a human than a robot avatar Journal of Vision 2015 9 15 12 52 How do we control our bodily movements when socially interacting with others? Research on online motor control provides evidence that task relevant visual information is used for guiding corrective movements of ongoing motor actions. In social interactions observers have been shown to use their own motor system for predicting the outcome of another person's action (direct matching hypothesis) and it has been suggested that this information is used for the online control of their social interactions such as when giving someone a high five. Because only human but not non-human (e.g. robot) movements can be simulated within the observer's motor system, the human-likeness of the interaction partner should affect both the planning and online control of movement execution. We examined this hypothesis by investigating the effect of human-likeness of the interaction partner on motor planning and online motor control during natural social interactions. To this end, we employed a novel virtual reality paradigm in which participants naturally interacted with a life-sized virtual avatar. While 14 participants interacted with a human avatar, another 14 participants interacted with a robot avatar. All participants were instructed to give a high-five to the avatar. To test for online motor control we randomly perturbed the avatar's hand trajectories during participants' motor execution. Importantly, human and robot looking avatars were executing identical movements. We used optical tracking to track participants' hand positions. The analysis of hand trajectories showed that participants were faster in carrying out the high-five movements with humans than with robots suggesting that the human-likeness of the interaction partner indeed affected motor planning. However, there was little evidence for a substantial effect of the human-likeness on online motor control. Taken together the results indicate that the human-likeness of the interaction partner influences motor planning but not online motor control. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2433090 St. Pete Beach, FL, USA 15th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS 2015) 10.1167/15.12.52 delarosaSde la Rosa mlubkollMLubkull ststSStreuber asaultonASaulton meilingerTMeilinger hhbHHBülthoff RCañal-Bruland poster delaRosaWBFSMC2015 Does the two streams hypothesis hold for joint actions? 2015 7 2 53 Associating sensory action information with the correct action interpretation (semantic action categorization (SAC)) is important for successful joint action, e.g. for the generation of an appropriate complementary response. Vision for perception and vision for action has been suggested to rely on different visual mechanisms (two streams hypothesis). To better understand visual processes supporting joint actions, we compared SAC processes in passive observation and in joint actions. If passive observation and joint action taps into different SAC processes, then adapting SAC processes during passive observation should not affect the generation of complementary action responses. We used an action adaptation paradigm to selectively measure SAC processes in a novel virtual reality set up, which allowed participants to naturally interact with a human looking avatar. Participants visually adapted to an action of an avatar and gave a SAC judgment about a subsequently presented ambiguous action in three different experimental conditions: (1) by pressing a button (passive condition) or by either creating an action response (2) subsequently to (active condition) or (3) simultaneously with (joint action condition) the avatar's action. We found no significant difference between the three conditions suggesting that SAC mechanisms for passive observation and joint action shares similar processes. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://somby.info/page4/assets/JAM6_program.pdf Budapest, Hungary 6th Joint Action Meeting (JAM 2015) delarosaSde la Rosa ywahnYWahn hhbHHBülthoff lfademrechtLFademrecht asaultonASaulton meilingerTMeilinger dongD-SChang poster HuffPMd2015 Semantic Relations in Asymmetric Dynamic Social Interactions 2015 3 10 122 When processing the semantic relations in a picture, observers are faster in determining the agent (i.e. the acting person) than the patient of an action (i.e. the person receiving an action). This “agent advantage effect” was shown with static pictorial stimulus material (e.g., one fish biting an other fish). We investigated whether this effect also holds true for dynamic social interactions (e.g. one person pushing an other person). The most important difference between static and dynamic stimuli is the amount of change per time unit, which is different for agents and patients. Participants viewed dynamic animations depicting two stick figures with one patting the other on the shoulder. The viewing angle on this interaction as well as the start frame of the movement were systematically varied and randomly presented. Participants were instructed to search for the agent (i.e. the person patting) and the patient (i.e. the person being patted; order counterbalanced across participants) in these interactions and to press the button corresponding to the location on the screen. Results indicated a reversed “agent advantage effect” with the participants being more correct when searching for the patient. This suggests that motion information derived from the dynamic interactions interacts with semantic processing. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) MHuff HPapenmeier meilingerTMeilinger delarosaSde la Rosa poster MeilingerFMB2014 How to remember Tübingen? Reference frames in route and survey knowledge of one’s city of residency Cognitive Processing 2014 9 15 Supplement 1 S53-S54 Knowledge underlying everyday navigation is distinguished into route and survey knowledge (Golledge 1999). Route knowledge allows re-combining and navigating familiar routes. Survey knowledge is used for pointing to distant locations or finding novel shortcuts. We show that within one’s city of residency route and survey knowledge root in separate memories of the same environment and are represented within different reference frames. Twenty-six Tu¨bingen residents who lived there for seven years in average faced a photo- realistic virtual model of Tübingen and completed a survey task in which they pointed to familiar target locations from various locations and orientations. Each participant’s performance was most accurate when facing north, and errors increased as participants’ deviation from a north-facing orientation increased. This suggests that participants’ survey knowledge was organized within a single, north-oriented reference frame. One week later, 23 of the same participants conducted route knowledge tasks comprising of the very same start and goal locations used in the survey task before. Now participants did not point to a goal location, but used arrow keys of a keyboard to enter route decisions along an imagined route leading to the goal. Deviations from the correct number of left, straight, etc. decisions and response latencies were completely uncorrelated to errors and latencies in pointing. This suggests that participants employed different and independent representations for the matched route and survey tasks. Furthermore, participants made fewer route errors when asked to respond from an imagined horizontal walking perspective rather than from an imagined constant aerial perspective which replaced left, straight, right decisions by up, left, right, down as in a map with the order tasks balanced. This performance advantage suggests that participants did not rely on the single, north-up reference used for pointing. Route and survey knowledge were organized along different reference frames. We conclude that our participants’ route knowledge employed multiple local reference frames acquired from navigation whereas their survey knowledge relied on a single north-oriented reference frame learned from maps. Within their everyday environment, people seem to use map or navigation-based knowledge according to which best suits the task. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Research Group Mohler http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10339-014-0632-2.pdf Tübingen, Germany 12th Biannual Conference of the German Cognitive Science Society (KogWis 2014) 10.1007/s10339-014-0632-2 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein mohlerBJMohler hhbHHBülthoff poster MeilingerFWBH2014 Map-based Reference Frames Are Used to Organize Memory of Subsequent Navigation Experience 2014 9 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://conference.spatial-cognition.de/SC2014/node/48 Bremen, Germany Spatial Cognition 2014 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein KWatanabe hhbHHBülthoff CHölscher poster PapeWSBM2011 Grid cell remapping in humans 2011 11 41 288.05 Grid cells in entorhinal cortex of freely moving rodents were proposed to provide a universal metric of space. They tile the environment into a six-fold symmetric pattern with a particular orientation relative to the environment. The six-fold rotational symmetry of grid patterns can be used to predict a macroscopic signal to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans [Doeller et al, 2010, Nature]. During hippocampal remapping, grid pattern orientations in rats also change. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether orientation changes (i.e., remapping) can also be found in humans. Participants learned object locations within a virtual room (see Figure 1 left side) and retrieved locations from different start locations during two scanning sessions. They then navigated into an adjacent room and repeated the procedure. We extracted grid orientations from odd trials, and predicted the BOLD response in even trials as a function of the deviation between running direction and the estimated grid orientation for each session. This prediction was significant for the right entorhinal cortex, replicating earlier findings. In 80% of the cases grid cell orientations significantly differed between sessions both within a room and between rooms (see Figure 1 right side). Switching off the virtual environment between sessions for about one minute was seemingly sufficient for that. For male, but not for female participants, grid cell orientation was clustered around the random view of the room experienced at session start. Data suggests that human grid cell orientations can be rather flexible which might be due to the virtuality of the experience. Grid cell orientation might at least for male participants be related to the initial view of an environment. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.sfn.org/am2011/ Washington, DC, USA 41st Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2011) antopiaA-APape TWolbers johannesJSchultz hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger poster PapeWSBM2011_2 Grid cell remapping in humans 2011 10 12 38 Grid cells in entorhinal cortex of freely moving rodents were proposed to provide a universal metric of space. They tile the environment into a six-fold symmetric pattern with a particular orientation relative to the environment. The six-fold rotational symmetry of grid patterns can be used to predict a macroscopic signal to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans [Doeller et al, 2010, Nature]. During hippocampal remapping, grid pattern orientations in rats also change. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether orientation changes (i.e. remapping) can also be found in humans. Participants learned object locations within a virtual room and retrieved locations from different start locations during two scanning sessions. They then navigated into an adjacent room and repeated the procedure. We extracted grid orientations from odd trials, and predicted the BOLD response in even trials as a function of the deviation between running direction and the estimated grid orientation for each session. This prediction was significant for the right entorhinal cortex, replicating earlier findings. In 80% of the cases grid cell orientations significantly differed between sessions both within a room and between rooms. Switching off the virtual environment between sessions for about one minute was seemingly sufficient for that. For male, but not for female participants, grid cell orientation was clustered around the random view of the room experienced at session start. Data suggests that human grid cell orientations can be rather flexible which might be due to the virtuality of the experience. Grid cell orientation might at least for male participants be related to the initial view of an environment. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Heiligkreuztal, Germany 12th Conference of Junior Neuroscientists of Tübingen (NeNA 2011) antopiaA-APape TWolbers johannesJSchultz hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger poster 6508 Path integration in the third dimension Journal of Vestibular Research 2010 8 20 3-4 282 Path integration, the ability to update the position and orientation of external locations predominantly on the basis of internal cues, is an effective strategy for spatial navigation. While extensive work has been done on evaluating path integration in the horizontal plane, little is known for movements in the vertical (third) dimension. Here we assess whether pointing to the origin of translational movement in vertical planes is similar to that found for movement in the horizontal plane alone. 15 observers sat upright in a racecar seat that was mounted to the flange of a modified KUKA c anthropomorphic robot arm (Fig. 1a). An LCD display was 50cm in front of the observers who were otherwise tested in the dark. Sensory information was manipulated by providing visual (optic flow, limited lifetime star field), vestibular-kinesthetic (passive self motion with eyes closed), or visual and vestibularkinesthetic motion cues. Movement trajectories consisted of two segment lengths (1st: 0.4 m, 2 nd: 1 m; ± 0.24 m/s2 peak acceleration). Movements in the horizontal, sagittal and frontal planes consisted of: forward-rightward (FR) or rightward-forward (RF), downward-forward (DF) or forward-downward (FD), and downward-rightward (DR) or rightward-downward (RD) movements respectively. The angle of the two segments was either 45◦ or 90◦. A 15 s pause preceded each trajectory. Observers pointed back to their origin by moving an arrow that was superimposed on an avatar presented on the screen (Fig. 1b). Movement of the arrow was constrained to the trajectory’s plane and controlled by a joystick. The avatarwas presented from frontal, sagittal and horizontal viewpoints. Observers were allowed to use any or all viewpoints to answer. The starting orientation of the arrow was randomized across trials. Each condition was repeated 3 times and presented in random order. Signed error and response time were analyzed as dependent variables. Observers were more likely to underestimate angle size (average data less than 0◦; Fig. 1c) for movement in the horizontal plane compared to the vertical planes. In the frontal plane observers were more likely on average to overestimate angle size (average data more than 0◦), while there was no such bias in the sagittal plane. Another discrepancy between horizontal and vertical planes was that responses in the vertical planes were more closely related to a response bias suggesting that the path segments were of equal length (solid grey line). Finally, observers responded slower (Fig. 1d) when answering based on vestibular-kinesthetic information alone. These results suggest that human path integration based on vestibular-kinesthetic information alone takes longer than when visual information is present. Path integration has been well established as a means used to resolve where an observer originated but is prone to underestimates of the angle one has moved through. Our results show this for translational movement but only within the horizontal plane. In the vertical planes pointing may have been directed in accordance with an assumption of equal path lengths. This result suggests that alternative strategies for determining one’s origin may be adopted when moving in the third dimension which may relate to the fact that humans experience movement mostly within the horizontal plane. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://iospress.metapress.com/content/m2507728n2243114/fulltext.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Reykjavik, Iceland XXVI Bárány Society Meeting en 10.3233/VES-2010-0374 mbcMBarnett-Cowan meilingerTMeilinger vidalMVidal hhbHHBülthoff poster 5909 The situational influence of location and body orientation on the recall of survey knowledge Cognitive Processing 2009 9 10 Supplement 2 S169 The theories of situated and embodied cognition have been gaining more and more attention recently. We examined the influence of the current situation (i.e., location and orientation) on accessing spatial memory of locations within ones city of residence. Tu¨bingen residents produced a simple map of the city centre, by arranging small badges representing well-known locations on a sheet of paper or a computer screen. Participants produced the maps at different locations relative to the city centre (north of, east of, etc.) and in different body orientations (facing north, east, etc.). We analyzed the orientation of these maps (north up, east up, etc.).We found an influence of location and body orientation on the orientation of the maps. Participants produced maps in the orientation they were facing more often than expected by chance (i.e., produced a north up map when facing north, an east up map when facing east, etc.). Participants also oriented the maps according to their viewpoint more often than expected by chance (i.e., produced a north up map when located south of the city centre, an east up map when located west, etc.). These results indicate that some participants either selected one of multiple long-term representations or they adopted a single longterm spatial representation according to the current situation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10339-009-0328-1.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Roma, Italy Fourth International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC 2009) en 10.1007/s10339-009-0328-1 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein sholzerSHolzer brescianiJ-PBrescani poster 5908 Distance and alignment effects in survey knowledge of a highly familiar city Perception 2009 8 38 ECVP Abstract Supplement 63 In this experiment we examined alignment and distance effects in human memory for a highly familiar environmental space. Twenty-seven participants who lived on average seven years in Tübingen saw a photorealistic virtual model of the city centre of Tübingen (Virtual Tübingen) through a head-mounted display. They were teleported to five different places in Virtual Tübingen and asked to point towards well-known target locations. This procedure was repeated 36 times for each of the target locations in 12 different body orientations. Participants pointed much more accurately when oriented northwards regardless of target. There were no significant correlations between straight line distance to the pointing target and pointing speed or accuracy. These results are consistent with the assumption that all locations were represented within one oriented coordinate system. Even though this is predicted by reference direction theory, it is unclear why, first, almost all participants have the same reference direction, and second, why this direction is north. We discuss our results with respect to well-known theories of spatial memory and speculate that the bias for a north orientation is because participants rely on the memory of a map of Tübingen for their response. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://pec.sagepub.com/content/38/1_suppl.toc Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Regensburg, Germany 32nd European Conference on Visual Perception en 10.1177/03010066090380S101 frankensteinJFrankenstein mohlerBMohler hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger poster 5710 Place naming: examining the influence of language on wayfinding 2009 8 1997 We asked the question how language influences a presumably embodied system such as human wayfinding. To test this, participants walked along a route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by what they saw. At the other 50% of intersections they heard an arbitrary name which they also had to remember. In the test phase they were teleported to different intersections and had to indicate the direction the route went on. At intersections without a name they performed faster and more accurately. In a second experiment meaningful names were used instead. Participants now performed better at named intersection. The results indicate an interaction between language and the presumably embodied wayfinding system. This interaction cannot be explained by a limited common resource, depth of processing, overshadowing, or linguistic scaffolding. However, it is consistent with dual coding. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://cognitivesciencesociety.org/conference2009/index.html Taatgen, N. , H. van Rijn Cognitive Science Society
Austin, TX, USA
Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Amsterdam, Netherlands 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2009) en 978-0-9768318-5-3 meilingerTMeilinger jspJSchulte-Pelkum frankensteinJFrankenstein naimaNLaharnar GHardieß hamHAMallot hhbHHBülthoff
poster 5907 The influence of the current situation on the recall of survey knowledge: the case of location and body orientation Perception 2009 8 38 ECVP Abstract Supplement 66 Theories of situated and embodied cognition have been gaining more and more attention recently. We examined the influence of the current situation (ie, location and orientation) on accessing spatial memory of locations within one's city of residence. Tübingen residents produced a simple map of the city centre, by arranging small badges representing well-known locations on a sheet of paper. Participants produced the maps at different locations relative to the city centre (north of, east of, etc) and in different body orientations (facing north, east, etc). We analyzed the orientation of these maps (north up, east up, etc). We found an influence of location and body orientation on the orientation of the maps. Participants produced maps in the orientation they were facing more often than expected by chance (eg, produced an east up map when facing east). Participants also oriented the maps according to their viewpoint more often than expected by chance (eg, produced a west up map when located east of the city centre). These results indicate that participants do not just access spatial long-term memory of their city of residence, but that they adjust it according to their current situation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://pec.sagepub.com/content/38/1_suppl.toc Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Regensburg, Germany 32nd European Conference on Visual Perception en 10.1177/03010066090380S101 meilingerTMeilinger frankensteinJFrankenstein sholzerSHolzer J-PBrescani poster 4656 Long-Term Memory for Environmental Spaces: the Case of Orientation Specificity 2007 7 10 124 This study examined orientation specificity in human long-term memory for environmental spaces, and was designed to disambiguate between three theories concerning the organisation of memory: reference direction theory [e.g., 1], view dependent theory [e.g., 2] and a theory assuming orientation-independency [e.g., 3]. Participants learned an immersive virtual environment by walking in one direction. The environment consisted of seven corridors within which target objects were located. In the testing phase, participants were teleported to different locations in the environment and were asked to identify their location and heading and then to point towards previously learned targets. In experiment 1 eighteen participants could see the whole corridor and were able to turn their head during the testing phase, whereas in experiment 2 visibility was limited and the twenty participants were asked to not turn their heads during pointing. Reference direction theory assumes a global reference direction underlying the memory of the whole layout and would predict better performance when oriented in the global reference direction. However, no support was found for the reference direction theory. Instead, as predicted by view-dependent theories, participants pointed more accurately when oriented in the direction in which they originally learned each corridor, even when visibility was limited to one meter for all orientations (all results p<.05). When the whole corridor was visible, participants also self-localised faster when oriented in the learned direction. In direct comparison participants pointed more accurately when facing the learned direction instead of the global reference direction. With the corridors visible they also self-localised faster. No support was found for an exclusive orientation-independent memory as performance was orientation-dependent with respect to the learned orientation. We propose a ‘network of reference frames’ theory which extends the view-dependent theory by stating how locations learned from different views are connected within a spatial network. This theory is able to integrate elements of the different theoretical positions. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.twk.tuebingen.mpg.de/twk07/abstract.php?_load_id=meilinger01 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Tübingen, Germany 10th Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz (TWK 2007) en meilingerTMeilinger bernieBERiecke naimaNLaharnar hhbHHBülthoff poster 4078 Orientation with maps: memory systems, memory content and strategies 2006 6 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.ki2006.fb3.uni-bremen.de/ Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Bremen, Germany 29th Annual German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI 2006) meilingerTMeilinger poster 4841 Verbal, Visual and Spatial Memory in Wayfinding 2006 3 9 127 This study examined the working memory systems relevant for wayfinding. 24 participants learned two routes in a novel photorealistic virtual environment displayed on a 220 screen while performing a verbal, a visual, a spatial or no secondary task. Performance in the secondary task and in subsequent retracing of the previously presented routes with a joystick was recorded. Participants without a secondary task performed better compared to participants with a secondary task. On one route participants with the visual secondary task got lost less often compared to participants with the verbal secondary task. Better performance in the visual secondary task was found compared to the spatial secondary task. A trade-off between first and secondary task could be ruled out. The results indicate that spatial and verbal memory were used in wayfinding. Despite other results in pre-tests we measured a non-significant higher difficulty of the spatial secondary task in a baseline condition, providing an alternative explanation for the importance of spatial memory. After the experiment we tested the participants’ memory for their local surroundings. In a choice reaction task presented on a computer screen they had to discriminate pictures of intersections they had encountered before from distracters. Intersections encountered before were discriminated faster and more accurate from distracters when the perspective seen was along the direction of travelling compared to 90 or the opposite direction. The participants encoded their local environment view-dependent as they encountered it. At the level of large scale spaces, this result contradicts with encoding spatial information relative to a single reference direction [e.g. 1]. Pictures taken along the direction of travel were recognised better and faster than pictures aligned with a reference direction defined by the initial direction or the main orientation of the environment. In agreement with studies in reorientation [e.g. 2], verbal memory was used for wayfinding. These results are consistent with a dual coding approach, which states that spatial information is also encoded verbally. Local intersections were stored view-dependent as experienced along with the direction of travel rather than parallel to the initial orientation or the main orientation of a route. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.twk.tuebingen.mpg.de/twk06/abstract.php?_load_id=meilinger01 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Tübingen, Germany 9th Tübingen Perception Conference (TWK 2006) en meilingerTMeilinger widigerAWidinger knauffMKnauff hhbHHBülthoff poster 3856 Maps, Room Numbers and Wayfinding Strategies: Investigations in a Vertically Complex Building 2005 9 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.geog.buffalo.edu/COSIT05/ Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Ellicottville, NY, USA Conference On Spatial Information Theory (COSIT '05) en CHölscher meilingerTMeilinger GVrachliotis MBrösamle poster 3354 Gedächtnissysteme beim Finden von Wegen in einer virtuellen Umgebung Experimentelle Psychologie 2005 4 47 133 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff https://www.teap.de/memory/Abstractband_47_2005_regensburg.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Regensburg, Germany 47. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2005) de meilingerTMeilinger knauffMKnauff widigerAWidiger hhbHHBülthoff poster 2681 Nach dem Weg fragen oder Karte studieren, was ist besser? Ein Feldexperiment Experimentelle Psychologie 2004 4 46 169 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.allpsych.uni-giessen.de/teap/index.php D. Kerzel, V. Franz & K. Gegenfurtner Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Giessen, Germany 46. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2004) meilingerTMeilinger knauffMKnauff poster TotzkeMK2002 Einfluss von Nutzermerkmalen auf das Erlernen von Menüsystemen Experimentelle Psychologie 2002 3 44 220 Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „Kompetenzerwerb für Fahrerinformationssysteme“ (gefördert durch Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V. und Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen) wird untersucht, inwiefern das Erlernen von Informationssystemen durch Nutzermerkmale moderiert wird. 24 Probanden sollen in dieser Aufgabe per Joystick das Menüsystem eines Raumschiffes befehligen. Als lernrelevante Merkmale werden kognitive Leistungsgeschwindigkeit, sprachgebundene Fähigkeit, Lernstil (räumlich vs. sprachlich) und Lernstrategien sowie motivationale Faktoren wie Computerangst, Computerselbstwirksamkeit und die Einstellung gegenüber Computer betrachtet. Zusätzlich wird der Einfluss von lernbereichsspezifischem Vorwissen und soziodemographischen Merkmalen berücksichtigt. Das Poster fasst die wichtigsten Ergebnisse zusammen und macht Vorschläge, welche Nutzergruppen bei der Untersuchung des Kompetenzerwerbes von Informationssystemen idealiter zu unterscheiden sind. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de https://www.teap.de/memory/ Chemnitz, Germany 44. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2002) ITotzke meilingerTMeilinger H-PKrüger poster 2459 Lernen von Menüsystemen in Abhängigkeit von Struktur und Darbietungsform Experimentelle Psychologie 2002 3 44 167 Im Rahmen des Projektes „Kompetenzerwerb für Fahrerinformationssysteme“ (gefördert durch Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V. und Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen) wird untersucht, welche Menüsystemarten besser gelernt werden. N = 28 Probanden sollen per Joystick das Menüsystem eines Raumschiffes befehligen. Variiert werden die Darbietung übergeordneter Menüs (eine vs. alle Ebenen), die Häufigkeit von Aufgaben sowie die Sortierung des Menüsystems nach Zielen, die erreicht werden sollen, oder nach Geräten, die dafür benutzt werden. Größe und Struktur einzelner Menübereiche werden miteinander verglichen. Untersucht wird Lernen, Wiedererlernen nach einer Woche und Umlernen auf ein häufigkeitsangepasstes System, mit Menüpunkten in Reihenfolge ihrer bisherigen Auftretenshäufigkeit. Die entsprechende Veränderung der Bedienleistung wird über Bedienzeiten, Fehleranzahl und -arten sowie die Hilfebenutzung erfasst. Die anfänglichen Vorteile der Gerätesortierung und der Darbietung übergeordneter Menüs verringern sich mit fortschreitendem Lernen. Eine einwöchige Pause führt zu unterschiedlich starken Einbußen im Lernfortschritt. Beim Umlernen kommt es zu Leistungseinbußen in der Bedienung der Menüsysteme. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de https://www.teap.de/memory/ Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Chemnitz, Germany 44. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2002) meilingerTMeilinger ITotzke H-PKrüger thesis Meilinger2008_2 Strategies of Orientation in Environmental Spaces 2008 7 1 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Meilinger-Thesis-2007.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg PhD meilingerTMeilinger thesis 2487 Kompetenzerwerb von Menüsystemen als multicodierter Prozess 2002 10 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267992604_Kompetenzerwerb_von_Menusystemen_als_multicodierter_Prozess Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Bayrische Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Philosophische Fakultät Diplom meilingerTMeilinger miscellaneous delaRosaM2016 Können Sie mir sagen, wie ich zum Ziel komme?: Die Interaktion räumlichen und sozialen Denkens - Forschungsbericht 2015 Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 2015 2015 Alltagssituationen erfordern oft das Zusammenspiel von Wissen über den Raum und über das soziale Verhalten anderer Personen, z. B. wenn man jemanden nach dem Weg fragt. In der bisherigen Forschung werden die Denkprozesse dieser beiden elementaren menschlichen Fähigkeiten häufig unabhängig voneinander untersucht. Um menschliches Verhalten im Alltag besser zu verstehen, erforschen Tobias Meilinger und Stephan de la Rosa vom Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik mit ihrer Gruppe soziale und räumliche Wahrnehmungs- und Denkprozesse sowie deren Zusammenspiel. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff https://www.mpg.de/8904661/JB_2015?c=9262520 delarosaSde la Rosa meilingerTMeilinger miscellaneous 6077 Von A nach B Gehirn und Geist 2009 10 2009 10 54-59 Tag für Tag orientieren wir uns sicher im Raum. Was selbstverständlich klingt, stellt für unser Gehirn eine große Herausforderung dar. Wie meistert es diese? Die Hirnforscher Tobias Meilinger und Christian Doeller suchen nach dem inneren Kompass, der uns den Weg weist. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff http://www.gehirn-und-geist.de/artikel/1001493 Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft de meilingerTMeilinger CDoeller conference KeilmanndCM2017 How do individual and collaborative spatial problem solving differ? The case of environmental search 2017 3 28 179 Collaborative spatial problem solving is an important yet not thoroughly examined task. We report first results regarding the performance differences between individual and collaborative spatial problem solving on the example of searching a large scale space. Participants navigated through a virtual city environment seeing only the environment part visible from their current location from a bird’s eye view map perspective. They used a joystick for movement and saw their visible section displayed on an individual monitor. In case of collaborative search their partner was displayed only when located within the area of visibility. Participants searched randomly generated non-grid, street networks of different complexity as implemented by the number of intersections. They searched the same environments once alone and once together with a partner with the order of testing balanced between participants. Participants’ task was to search the entire area as quickly as possible just as firefighters searching a burning building for victims. At each intersection and in the middle of each street leg an invisible target location was placed and participants heard a sound when visiting them for the first time. We recorded missed target locations, overall trajectory length and search time per person until self-indicating whole coverage. Our results show a general increase in missed locations, trajectory length, and search time with the complexity of the environment. These increases differed due to individual and collaborative search. For complex, but not for simple environments individual participants navigated shorter distances, finished earlier, but also missed more target locations than when searching the same environments in collaboration. These results indicate that in complex environments collaborative search is less error prone than individual search, but takes longer. Such initial findings will constrain future theorizing about collaborative spatial problem solving. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.teap2017.de/scientific-program/ Dresden, Germany 59th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2017) fkeilmannFKeilmann delarosaSde la Rosa UCress meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2017 Reference frames in spatial memory for vertical locations - comparing gravity, visual upright, and egocentric experience 2017 2 4 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/de/27thoculomotormeeting/program.html Tübingen, Germany 27th Oculomotor Meeting meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2016 The integration of room views 2016 9 113-114 Rooms cannot be experienced within a single view as humans cannot look backwards. Nevertheless, humans are able to form an understanding of the whole room. We were interested how and under which conditions integrated room representations are formed based on which long-term memory structure. Participants experienced views of a rectangular virtual room from its center through a head mounted display. Afterwards, they saw a room view and indicated the direction of a non-visible room object using the arrow keys of a keyboard. Participants responded quicker for the first view encountered than for later experienced room views. This pattern did not change when participants rotated physically during learning or only visually. These results indicate that participants did not update experienced room views during learning to memorize integrated room information and are therefore inconsistent with integrating cognitive map parts via path integration [1]. The results are consistent with memorizing separate room views and the transitions between them [2] as well as with memorizing an integrated room memory in a reference frame oriented along the first experienced room view [3]. Our data cannot clearly separate between the two possibilities suggesting that both strategies might have taken place to some degree. The model best fitting with the data suggests that integrating within a single reference frame most often occurred when participants could look around in a self-determined sequence as long as they wanted in continuously changing perspectives. Contrary, when the sequence of views was pre-determined participants most often relied on a sequence of stored views. In sum, results indicate, firstly, that humans do not necessarily integrate experienced room views during learning, even they know that they have to act on an integrated room representation afterwards. Secondly, the first experienced room view acts as an anchor later experienced views are related towards. Thirdly, spatial long-term memory formation seems rather independent from updating the spatial surrounding in working memory during learning. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://elib.suub.uni-bremen.de/edocs/00105521-1.pdf Bremen, Germany 13th Biannual Conference of the German Cognitive Science Society (KogWis 2016) choreisCHoreis cfosterCFoster KWatanabe hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2016_2 Spatial integration within large-scale spaces 2016 6 29 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.inav2016.com/program.html Bad Gastein, Austria 1st Interdisciplinary Navigation Symposium (iNAV 2016) meilingerTMeilinger conference LohmannKMB2016 Embodied social spaces: Implicit racial bias modulates spatial perspective taking 2016 3 23 58 195-196 According to theories of embodied cognition, cognitive functions are rooted in the interactions between an agent and its environment. Besides the sensorimotor component, these interactions comprise social aspects. Hence, we hypothesized that interpersonal attitudes should affect cognitive processes to some degree, even if the task itself is not social. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a spatial perspective taking (SPT) experiment in an immersive virtual reality. Participants had to localize an object from the perspective of a light-, a dark-skinned, or an artificial avatar. In addition, we measured the racial bias of the participants with a racial Implicit Association Test (IAT) before (pre-IAT) and after (post-IAT) the experiment. Higher pre-IAT scores yielded slower RTs for the dark-skinned avatar, compared to the light-skinned one. A subgroup analysis, based on a median-split between participants with high and low pre-IAT, showed that this effect was only present in the high pre-IAT group. Furthermore, the correlation between pre-IAT and the differences in RTs for the dark- and light-skinned avatars was significant. There was no correlation between post-IAT scores and RT differences. Apparently, the IAT scores changed over the course of the experiment, even if the mean of the IAT scores remained the same. Participants with high pre-IAT scores produced low post-IAT scores, for participants with low pre-IAT scores the opposite was true. This negative correlation between pre-IAT scores and changes in the IAT scores was significant. Further experiments are necessary to clarify if this reflects an overall regression towards the mean, or if the SPT task selectively changes the IAT scores. The results show that performance in a purely spatial task (SPT) is modulated by interpersonal attitudes and that performing the task affects these attitudes. Implications of the results for theories of embodied and social cognition are discussed. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/Abstractband_58_2016_Heidelberg.pdf Heidelberg, Germany 58th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2016) JLohmann JKurz meilingerTMeilinger MVButz conference HintereckerLBBM2016 Spatial memory in the vertical plane: The influence of gravity and room orientation during learning and retrieval 2016 3 22 58 129 Many studies examined memory of object layouts on a horizontal plane, pointing towards representations aligned with learning perspective or salient room/layout orientations. In contrast, findings regarding object layouts on the vertical plane are rare. While the horizontal plane is clearly defined by the direction of gravity, verticality can be interpreted along the observer’s body, the visual or the gravitational up/ down axes. To investigate which of these axes is used for mentally representing vertically aligned objects, we experimentally varied two factors: room and body orientation. The former was manipulated by tilting a virtual environment (VE) – either being consistent with physical gravity (floor down) or not (floor to the right) –, and the latter by having people sit upright or lie down during exposure to the VE. After learning a configuration of nine differently colored objects aligned on a vertical plane in a single combination of both factors, participants were tested in both body orientations successively and with several different room orientations. Preliminary results show that if the VE orientation was consistent with physical gravity during learning, better performance was obtained if the individuals’ body axis was aligned with physical gravity (upright) during retrieval (regardless of the VE orientation). If the VE was tilted and participants were lying down during learning, they seemed to represent object configurations mainly along their body axes. If participants were sitting while observing a tilted VE, results were mixed. We preliminary conclude that in natural conditions human memory in the vertical plane is aligned with physical gravity. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/Abstractband_58_2016_Heidelberg.pdf Heidelberg, Germany 58th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2016) thintereckerTHinterecker cleroyCLeroy MVButz hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger conference MeilingerRHBM2016 Constraints on models of human survey estimation: evidence from a learning study 2016 3 3 Survey estimates such as pointing, straight line distance estimation, or finding novel shortcuts to distant locations are common tasks. Although involved reference frames and brain areas were examined the underlying processing is widely unknown. We examined the development of survey knowledge with experience to tap into the underlying processes. Participants learned a simple multi-corridor layout by walking forwards and backwards through a virtual environment. Throughout learning, participants were repeatedly asked to perform in pairwise pointing from each segment border to each other segment border. Pointing latency increased with pointing distance and decreased with pointing experience, rather than learning experience. From this realization, we conclude that participants did not access an encoded representation when performing survey tasks, but instead performed an on-the-fly construction of the estimates which was quicker for nearby goals and quickened with repeated construction, but not with learning of the underlying elements. This could relate to successive firing of place cells representing locations along a route from the current location to the target, or the construction of a mental model of non-visible object locations. Furthermore, participants made systematic errors in pointing, for example, mixed up turns or forgot segments. Modelling of underlying representations based on different error sources suggests that participants did not create one unified representation when internally constructing the experimental environment. But instead, they constructed a unique representation at least for each orientation the environment was navigated. There was no indication that this separation changed with experience. We conclude that survey estimates are conducted on-the-fly and are based on multiple representational units. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://spatial.cs.illinois.edu/2016workshop/Schedule.html Delmenhorst, Germany International Workshop on Models and Representations in Spatial Cognition meilingerTMeilinger jrebaneJRebane AHenson hhbHHBülthoff hamHAMallot conference Meilinger2015 Experimenting with psychology of space: Setting up experiments in vitro, in situ, and in silico 2015 11 11 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://kurser.ku.dk/course/nscphd1179/2015-2016 Copenhagen, Denmark University of Copenhagen Course: Human mobility, Cognition and GISc meilingerTMeilinger conference SaultonMBd2015 The interaction of social and spatial cognitive processes in naturalistic social interactions Cognitive Processing 2015 9 10 16 Supplement 1 S47 Background: Coordinating actions in human social interactions relies on visual information about the interaction partner as well as knowledge about one’s own body. However, these processes have rarely been examined in realistic human interactions. Aims: Our research aims at deepening our understanding about social spatial interactions in human interaction by examining an important cognitive representation of the human body underlying perception and action, namely the body model. In addition, we also present work on how visual social information influences action execution in naturalistic interactions. Method: We use psychophysical methods to compare shape and size distortions between the body and objects in localization judgement tasks. We also examine the influence of a partner’s body appearance on movement trajectories in naturalistic human interactions using an interactive virtual reality setup. Participants executed a high-five with an avatar that either looked like a robot or a human. Results: We found evidence that distortions previously selectively attributed to the body, e.g. hand, are also observed with objects. In addition, actions were influenced by task irrelevant factors such as the visual appearance of the interaction partner. Conclusions: Non-verbal social interactions are influenced by nonbody specific spatial representations and non-action related social information about the interaction partner. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10339-015-0732-7.pdf Roma, Italy Space and Situated Cognition: Sixth International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC 2015) 10.1007/s10339-015-0732-7 asaultonASaulton meilingerTMeilinger hhbHHBülthoff delarosaSde la Rosa conference vanderHamWM2015 Individual differences in wayfinding Cognitive Processing 2015 9 9 16 Supplement 1 S34 Background: Wayfinding concerns the ability to get from A to B, one of the most fundamental behavioural problems we face on a daily basis. Typically, humans show large variation in wayfinding performance as well as in the strategies employed, even within relatively homogenous samples such as university students. Aim: This symposium aims to further our understanding of human wayfinding behavior, by investigating the factors that contribute to such individual differences in performance and strategy selection. Approach: We address individual differences in wayfinding behavior from a number of different viewpoints: First, we will focus on the effect of age to see how wayfinding performance and strategy selection develops in young age and how it is affected by typical and atypical ageing. Secondly, we will look at effects of expertise, specifically how orienteering experts and novices differ in their spatial abilities, spatial styles and environment representations. Finally, we will report on individual differences in the ability to correctly distinguish left from right and in the strategies used during the acquisition of environmental knowledge. Bringing together wayfinding research from these different areas will allow us to highlight some of the factors that contribute to individual differences in wayfinding behaviour. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10339-015-0732-7.pdf Roma, Italy Space and Situated Cognition: Sixth International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC 2015) 10.1007/s10339-015-0732-7 Ivan der Ham malteJWiener meilingerTMeilinger conference MeilingerRHBM2015 The acquisition of survey knowledge through navigation Cognitive Processing 2015 9 9 16 Supplement 1 S37 Background: Survey estimates such as pointing, straight line distance estimation, or finding novel shortcuts to distant locations are common tasks. Although involved reference frames and brain areas were examined the underlying processing is widely unknown. Aims: We examined how experience influences the development of survey knowledge. Method: Participants learned a simple multi-corridor layout by walking forwards and backwards through a virtual environment. Throughout learning, participants were repeatedly asked to perform in pairwise pointing from each turn between segments to each other turn. Results and Conclusions: Pointing latency increased with pointing distance and decreased with pointing experience, but not with learning experience. From this observation, we conclude that participants did not access an encoded representation when performing survey tasks, but instead performed an on-the-fly construction of the estimates which was quicker for nearby goals and became faster with repeated construction, but not with learning of the underlying elements. This could involve mental travel to the target location, or the incremental construction of a mental model of non-visible object locations. Furthermore, participants made systematic errors in pointing, for example, mixed up turns or forgot segments. Modelling of underlying representations based on different error sources all suggest that participants did not create one unified representation when internally constructing the experimental environment, but instead constructed aunique representation at least for each orientation the environment was navigated. We do not find indications that this separation changed with experience or other individual differences. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10339-015-0732-7.pdf Roma, Italy Space and Situated Cognition: Sixth International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC 2015) 10.1007/s10339-015-0732-7 meilingerTMeilinger jrebaneJRebane ahensonAHenson hhbHHBülthoff hamHAMallot conference MeilingerTFWBd2015 Spatial orientation as a social cue: the case of objects and avatars Cognitive Processing 2015 9 8 16 Supplement 1 S18 Background: Humans naturally keep a larger distance to the front of other people than to their back. Aims: Within three experiments we examined if such a front-back asymmetry is present already in perceived distances, and whether it extends to objects as well as to human characters. Method: Participants watched through a head mounted display single photorealistic virtual characters moving on the spot (avatars) and moving or static virtual objects (i.e., cameras) located within an invisible cube. Avatars and objects were presented at different distances and were either facing the participants or facing away from them. Participants then estimated the perceived distance to cameras and avatars by moving a virtual object to the location of the avatar or the centre of the invisible cube containing the cameras. Results: Both cameras and avatars facing participants resulted in shorter estimated distances than cameras and avatars facing away. This asymmetry was independent of the presented distance. Conclusions: Together with similar findings from experiments with virtual cones these results point towards a fundamental perceptual effect of object orientation. This orientation asymmetry effect does not depend on movement or object form and might indicate a basic form of social processing. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10339-015-0732-7.pdf Roma, Italy Space and Situated Cognition: Sixth International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC 2015) 10.1007/s10339-015-0732-7 meilingerTMeilinger KTakahashi cfosterCFoster KWatanabe hhbHHBülthoff delarosaSde la Rosa conference Meilingerd2015 Human navigation in virtual large scale spaces 2015 6 4 The Social and Spatial Cognition group at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics employs interactive virtual environments to examine cognitive processes underlying navigation and social interaction. Our research on navigation showed that humans physically walking through complex multi-corridor/-street spaces memorize these spaces within multiple, local reference frames. In case humans also had access to maps as, for example, in their city of residency, they rely on a mapbased reference frames for survey estimates, but on local reference frames for route planning. By having participants learn the same layout by manipulating the learning conditions we showed that separation into multiple reference frames is not driven by active walking or successive visibility of the elements, for example, when walking down multiple streets, but rather by having no common visible reference present during learning. We conclude that humans compartmentalize their surrounding within memory and visual access seems to be the crucial factor of separation. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.bccn-munich.de/talks-events/vr-workshop-2015-abstract-book Tutzing, Germany 6th Bernstein Sparks Workshop: Multi-modal closed-loop stimulation and virtual realities meilingerTMeilinger delarosaSde la Rosa conference MeilingerHB2015 Mental mapping impossible environments 2015 3 11 167 Two main classes of mental representations describe navigable environments: single coordinate systems and graphs. In coordinate systems each location can be assigned a specific coordinate (maybe on a hierarchal sub-level). Graphs represent local environments as nodes (e.g. a street or room) and the relations between close-by nodes (e.g., two meters straight, one to the left). One difference between graphs and coordinate systems is that coordinate systems have to be consistent; each coordinate refers only to one location and vice versa. This is important, for example, when walking round a block encountering the start location again which was thought to lie further down the street. The start and the current location are identical and represented at the same coordinate. The erroneous estimation of the streets in the loop must be adjusted to fit into the coordinate system. In graphs such consistency is not required; local street length and turns do not have to be consistent in a global metric. To test these predictions participants walked multiple times through a virtual corridor environment roughly 80% round the loop when they visually encountered the start again. Afterwards, they judged the spatial relation between adjacent locations along the loop. The majority of participants adjusted the spatial relations as if they were in a smaller loop than the one walked. However, they adjusted them not far enough to fit into a coordinate system, which would have required an even smaller loop. These results are inconsistent both with classical graph and coordinate representations. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) meilingerTMeilinger ahensonAHenson hhbHHBülthoff conference FosterTKHBdWBM2015 Looking at me? Influence of facing orientation of avatars and objects on distance estimation 2015 3 10 82 Humans naturally keep a larger distance to the front of other people than to their back. Within three experiments we showed that such a front-back asymmetry is present already in perceived distances, and that it extends to objects as well as to human characters. Participants watched photorealistic virtual characters (avatars) and moving or static virtual objects (i.e., cameras) through a head mounted display. These were presented at different distances and were either facing the participants or facing away from them. Participants then estimated the perceived distance to cameras and avatars by moving a virtual object to this place. Both cameras and avatars facing participants resulted in shorter estimated distances than cameras and avatars facing away. This asymmetry was independent of the presented distance. Together with similar findings from similar experiments with virtual cones these results point towards a fundamental perceptual effect of object orientation. This orientation asymmetry effect does not depend on movement or object form and might indicate a basic form of social processing. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) cfosterCFoster KTakahashi skurekSKurek choreisCHoreis mbauerleMJBäuerle delarosaSde la Rosa KWatanabe MVButz meilingerTMeilinger conference delaRosaLSMBC2015 Motor planning and control: You interact faster with a human than a robot 2015 3 10 60 Motor resonance (MR) has been a prominent idea to explain online motor control strategies. To date there is little evidence for this idea in online motor control tasks using realistic social interactions. Here we set out to test one important prediction of MR in realistic social interactions, namely that the visual human-likeness of the interaction partner should modulate online motor control. We used a novel virtual reality set up in which participants naturally interacted with a life-sized virtual avatar, who looked either like a human or like a robot (between subjects, 14 per group). Participants' task was to high-five this avatar, whose hand position (on 50% of the trials) was randomly moved to one of four locations during motor execution (online motor control task; identical kinematics of both avatars). We tracked participants' hand positions with optical tracking. Hand trajectories showed that participants were faster in carrying out the high-five movements with humans than with robots. However, there was little evidence for a profound effect of the human-likeness on corrective movements during online motor control. This is first evidence that - as predicted by MR – motor control in social interactions is different for different human vs. non-human like interaction partners. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) delarosaSde la Rosa mlubkollMLubkoll asaultonASaulton meilingerTMeilinger hhbHHBülthoff CCañal-Bruland conference StickrodtM2015 Movement, successive presentation and environmental structure and their influence on spatial memory in vista and environmental space 2015 3 10 246 A vista space (VS), e.g., a room, is perceived from one vantage point, whereas an environmental space (ES), e.g., a building, is experienced successively during movement. Participants learned the same object layout during walking through multiple corridors (ES) or within a differently oriented room (VS). In four VS conditions they either learned a fully or a successively visible object layout, and either from a static position or by walking through the environment along a path, mirroring the translation in ES. Afterwards, participants pointed between object locations in different body orientations and reproduced the object layout. Pointing latency in ES increased with the number of corridors to the target and pointing performance was best along corridor-based orientations. In VS conditions latency did not increase with distance and pointing performance was best along room-based orientations which were oblique to corridor and walking orientations. Furthermore, ES learners arranged the layout in the order they experienced the objects, and less so VS learners. Most beneficial pointing orientations, distance and order effects suggest that spatial memory in ES is qualitatively different from spatial memory in VS and that differences in the visible environment rather than movement or successive presentation are responsible for that. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) mstickrodtMStickrodt meilingerTMeilinger conference LeroyZBBM2015 Spatial memory in the horizontal and vertical plane 2015 3 10 153 While people frequently change perspectives around the ground plane, they less do so around the vertical plane. We investigated whether this difference in interacting with the environment affects spatial memories for different planes. In Experiment 1, participants memorized locations of colored tags on either a horizontal or a vertical board in a virtual room, and then relocated them to their original location from different perspectives (via rotating the board). Surprisingly, relocation was quicker and more accurate for the vertical than for the horizontal plane when spatial memory was accessed from the learning perspective or novel perspectives orthogonal to it. Therefore, spatial memory represented along vertical upright orientation can be better than that encoded with a front orientation. In Experiment 2, we rotated both the board and the whole virtual room to simulate the perspective change caused by observer’s movement. Performance decreased with increasing disparity between learning and test perspectives for the vertical plane but less so for the horizontal plane. Moreover, performance was clearly better when the room rotated with the board than not, suggesting that spatial locations were also represented with environmental frames of reference. These results demonstrate that spatial memories for horizontal and vertical planes are qualitatively different. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) cleroyCLeroy mzhaoMZhao MVButz hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger conference MeilingerGHS2015 The perception of relative speed of two bodies as a function of independent observer movement 2015 3 10 166 Various studies examined the perception of two moving objects from a static viewpoint or observer movement relative to a reference. However, the influence of observer movement on the perception of relative movement between two other bodies was not thoroughly examined yet. Participants watched two virtual characters running after each other from behind and judged whether the chaser was catching up or falling behind. We adapted the chaser’s speed within three staircases to fit a psychometric function targeting at the point of subjective equality of speeds of the characters (PSE) and the just noticeable difference of speeds (JND). This procedure was repeated for an observer who is static or moving with 50%, 100%, or 150% of the speed of the chased person which itself was constant. JNDs were comparable for all observer speeds. However, PSEs increased with the observer’s speed showing that observer movement influenced the perception of relative speed of two bodies. The slope of the increase is consistent with a strategy of keeping the partial occlusions of the two characters constant as well as with a strategy of keeping the distance proportion (of the chaser-chased distance on the overall observer-chased distance) constant. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_2015_Program2015-03-13.pdf Hildesheim, Germany 57th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2015) meilingerTMeilinger BGarsoffky choreisCHoreis SSchwan conference Meilinger2014_2 Environmental spaces are fragmentized into vista spaces 2014 9 3 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Lisboa, Portugal The Vespucci Institutes "Brain and Space" Workshop 2014 meilingerTMeilinger conference MeilingerHBM2014 How much path integration is in the cognitive map? 2014 8 1 21 Path integration is the ability to keep track of ones movement through space. It is used, for example, to update locations within short-term memory while moving with eyes closed. The question asked here is how much path integration contributes to the long-term storage of an environment learned by walking and if this contribution changes over the course of learning. Twenty-five participants walked through a virtual environment displayed via a head mounted display and which consisted of a row of eight corridors connected by 90 grad turns. Participants walked at a constant speed from one end of the environment to the other end and back again. After every four learning trials (= walking the route forwards and backwards twice) their acquired knowledge was tested and this procedure was repeated five times until they had walked through the environment 20 times. For testing, participants were teleported to a test location within the environment located at the start or the end of a corridor, self-localized, and pointed to all other test locations within the environment by turning around and aligning a vertical line with the assumed straight line direction to the target. We estimated a participant's individual path integration error from pointing to locations in adjacent corridors. Pointing errors were fully attributed to a distance error of the length of the adjacent corridor and not to distance errors in the current corridor which was visible during pointing or to angular errors of the turn as the turn was visible and turns are known to be recalled preferably as 90 grad turns. The average distance error in percent from all adjacent corridor pointings was extrapolated to target locations further away resulting in a two dimensional normal distribution of expected locations for each target location and participant. We estimated if pointings were sampled from such distributions for each participant and familiarity level. Pointings of 3 4 of the participants significantly deviated from such a distribution. This proportion was roughly constant throughout learning. We conclude that for the majority of participants pointing cannot be explained by quantitative path integration errors only and this does not change fundamentally with familiarity. Participants' cognitive maps seem to rely not only on quantitative path integration errors, but also incorporate qualitative errors such as mixing up directions or order. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://uni-tuebingen.de//uni/sii/empg2014/Program.htm Tübingen, Germany 2014 European Mathematical Psychology Group Meeting (EMPG) meilingerTMeilinger ahensonAHenson hhbHHBülthoff hamHAMallot conference Meilinger2014_4 Reference frames in spatial integration, memory, and recall 2014 7 15 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Giessen, Germany Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen: Fachgebiet Psychologie meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2014_3 Reference frames in spatial integration, memory, and recall 2014 6 26 Humans acquire spatial information about rooms, buildings, or cities from experienced views, movement trajectories, maps, or descriptions. These pieces of information are memorized, integrated to cover larger spatial areas, and recalled in order to navigate within an environment. We examine how such spatial information is organized: which pieces are represented together relative to which reference frame? Results showed that complex urban spaces acquired from navigation are represented within multiple, local reference frames, e.g., corresponding to corridors or streets. In case these have to be integrated, for example, when pointing to a distant location or searching for a shortcut, this is done incrementally at the current time and location. If navigators also had access to maps, they use a map based reference frame for pointing, maybe to circumvent cognitive costly integration. Despite map experience, route navigation still relies on multiple, local reference frames likely acquired from navigation. When recalling spatial layout information of highly-familiar environments navigators adjust it spontaneously to their current physical or imagined body orientation. Contrary to navigational spaces, integrating spatial information presented on a screen is more flexible. With sufficient time during learning, the possibility to update information between presentations, or knowing from where to use this information participants integrate within the reference frame of the first encountered view, a later updated view, or the orientation the information is used respectively. In summary, navigators flexibly adjust spatial reference frames to the available information and situational context. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture https://portal.uni-freiburg.de/cognition/news/copy18_of_Abteilungskolloquium Freiburg i. Br., Germany Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg: Center for Cognitive Science meilingerTMeilinger conference O039MalleyBM2014 How to find a shortcut within a city? Mental walk vs. mental model 2014 4 1 56 194 Survey tasks such as finding novel shortcuts or pointing to distant, non-visible locations within cities or buildings seem to be limited to human navigators. We tested two conflicting explanations for survey tasks. In the mental walk hypothesis familiar routes are represented by hippocampal place cells. Each cell represents one route location and cells are successively activated while mentally travelling along this route. This process underlies location estimation of distant targets. Its duration depends on place cell number and therefore route length. Contrary, the mental model hypothesis assumes building a mental model of non-visible environment parts without mentally walking there. Model construction is piece-wise, one street after the other. Duration of distant location estimation depends on the number of streets, not their length. To test these predictions participants learned four unconnected routes through a virtual city by walking on an omnidirectional treadmill. We independently varied route length (120 vs. 360 virtual meters) and number of turns (2 vs. 6) and measured latency in pointing between route locations after learning. Both route length and number of turns increased pointing latency. Neither hypothesis can fully account for the data. Maybe multiple systems based on vision vs. bodily cues contributed independently. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_Abstracts_20140219.pdf Giessen, Germany 56th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2014) momalleyMO'Malley hhbHHBülthoff meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2014 Multiple Strategies for Spatial Integration 2014 4 1 56 172 Spatial integration of separately experienced information is a rarely examined everyday task. Within four experiments we showed that participants flexibly adjust their spatial integration strategy, i.e., the reference frame used, according to the circumstances. Participants saw part of an object layout in screen 1, another part in screen 2, and reacted on the integrated layout in screen 3. Layout presentations between two screens coincided or differed in orientation. Aligning misaligned screens for integration is known to increase errors/latencies. The error/latency pattern was thus indicative of the reference frame used for integration. We showed that task familiarity combined with self-paced learning, visual updating, and knowing from where to act yielded the increased employment of initial, updated later, and acting reference frames respectively. Participants also heavily relied on layout intrinsic frames. Results suggest that spatial integration is not a largely monolithic process, but humans flexibly adjust their integration strategy to the way they perceive, act, and to the structure of the integrated layout. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/TeaP_Abstracts_20140219.pdf Giessen, Germany 56th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2014) meilingerTMeilinger KWatanabe conference Meilinger2013 Spatial cognition: different processes for different kinds of spaces 2013 11 12 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.cerco.ups-tlse.fr/-Seminaires-?lang=fr# Toulouse, France Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique: Centre de Recherche Cerveau & Cognition meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2013_2 Navigation in environmental spaces 2013 5 7 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Tokyo, Japan University of Tokyo: Ishikawa Watanabe Laboratory meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2013_3 Spatial integration 2013 3 5 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Kyoto, Japan Kyto University: Leaders for Integrated Medical System meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2012 "Im Kreis laufen": der menschliche Orientierungssinn und Kybernetik 2012 2 14 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Reutlingen, Germany Rotary Club Reutlingen-Tübingen-Nord meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2011_3 Spatial integration within environmental spaces 2011 12 9 In order to represent environmental spaces such as buildings or towns,multiple views experienced during navigation have to be integrated. In several experiments, we examined the underlying processes of reference frame integration. Participants walked through virtual environments displayed via a head-mounted display. Then, we tested their acquired survey knowledge as accessed via pointing or object placement tasks. Results indicate that participants constructed their survey estimates during retrieval in an incremental process starting from their current location. The route order in which participants experienced the environment influenced their estimates. We also presented participants with an environment containing an invisible teleporter. In order to represent this environment within a single Euclidean reference frame, locations have to be distorted. On average, participants distorted their environmental representation, however, not in way in which was indicative of a single Euclidean reference frame. Overall, our data suggest that participants did not construct a global reference frame common for all environmental locations, but rather solved each survey task individually within a step-wise process. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.sfbtr8.spatial-cognition.de/de/aktuelles-termine/aktuelles-termine/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=875&cHash=bb77f6a29f0589f4ab32ecd68c5013f8 Freiburg i. Br., Germany SFB/TR8 Spatial Cognition Colloquium meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2011 Reference frames for environmental spaces 2011 12 5 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Reading, UK University of Reading: Winter Workshop on Coordinate Frames for Visual Stability meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2011_2 Kommentar zu Michael Bratman "Acting over Time – Acting Together" 2011 6 6 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.rationalagency.uni-tuebingen.de/past-conferences/programme.php Tübingen, Germany Inaugural Graduiertenkolleg Workshop: Rational Agency meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2010_2 How do we memorize everyday environments and use this memory for pointing and selecting routes? 2010 12 16 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Freiburg i. Br., Germany Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg: Center for Cognitive Science meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2010_3 Situated maps 2010 8 24 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Santa Barbara, CA, USA University of California Santa Barbara: Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2010_4 Spatial cognition and virtual characters 2010 5 5 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Bielefeld, Germany Universität Bielefeld Technische fakultät: Arbeitsgruppe Wissensbasierte Systeme meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2010 Local and global reference frames in survey knowledge acquired from navigation and maps 2010 4 23 6 It has been a long standing question in spatial navigation research whether navigators represent their environment within a single reference frame (i.e. coordinate system) or within multiple local interconnected representations. Most results suggest that route navigation is based on multiple local representations. For survey navigation most theories assume that a common reference frame for all locations within an environment is formed immediately or eventually within long-term memory. However, we have shown that survey knowledge of a recently navigated virtual environment was based on local reference frames rather than on a single global reference frame. On the contrary, pointing within ones city of residence relied on a single, north oriented reference frame. We interpret this result in a way that navigators derived survey relations from map experiences. Experiments we conduct currently examine the processes relevant for survey tasks after learning from navigation and from maps. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.h-w-k.de/en/events/conferences-details/spatial-behavior-and-linguistic-representation.html Delmenhorst, Germany Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg: Workshop Spatial Behaviour and Linguistic Representation meilingerTMeilinger conference 6425 Asymmetrien und die Konstruktion von Überblickswissen 2010 3 52 77 Um in einer Stadt oder einem Gebäude zu entfernt liegenden Orten zu zeigen, müssen die während der Navigation erfahrenen Eindrücke in einem Referenzrahmen integriert werden. Um diesen Prozess zu untersuchen, liefen Versuchspersonen auf einem omnidirektionalem Laufband mindestens sechs mal eine Route durch eine virtuelle Stadt. Konnten sie die Route mehrmals fehlerfrei reproduzieren wurden sie an Orte in der Stadt teleportiert, lokalisierten ihren Standort und zeigten zu einer Reihe von Orten: entweder der Reihe nach vom derzeitigen Standort bis zum Start oder Ziel, oder vom Start/Ziel ausgehend bis zum derzeitigen Standort. Ersteres erledigten sie schneller, was vereinbar ist mit der Konstruktion eines mentalen Modells oder einer mentalen Reise vom derzeitigen Standort aus. Außerdem zeigten die Versuchspersonen konsistent genauer entweder Richtung Ziel oder Richtung Start – je nach Versuchsperson. Dies spricht für eine asymmetrische Encodierung räumlicher Information in lokalen, verknüpften Referenzrahmen und gegen die automatische Integration in einer globalen mentalen Karte. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/Tagungsband_TeaP_2010_SB.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Saarbrücken, Germany 52. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2010) de meilingerTMeilinger soumanJLSouman hhbHHBülthoff conference MeilingerM2010 Spatial Cognition and Virtual Characters 2010 2 22 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.cin.uni-tuebingen.de/news-events/browse-all-events/detail/view/338/page/3/conference-symposium-neural-encoding-of-perception-and-action.html Tübingen, Germany Symposium "Neural Encoding of Perception and Action" meilingerTMeilinger mohlerBMohler conference Meilinger2009 Situatedness in spatial cognition 2009 11 4 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.uni-giessen.de/cms/fbz/fb06/psychologie/abt/kognition/sonstiges/Kolloquium%20WS%202009-2010 Giessen, Germany Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen: Abteilung Allgemeine Psychologie und Kognitionsforschung meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2009_2 Situatedness in spatial cognition 2009 6 27 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Paris, France Collège de France: Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action meilingerTMeilinger conference 5244 Conceptions of Space: an Interdisciplinary Exchange 2008 10 9 14 Dealing with space is a pivotal common issue for all locomoting beings such as humans, non-human animals, or robots. As a consequence, many disciplines related to Cognitive Science examine spatial problems, e.g. Computer Science, Psychology, Biology, Linguistics, Philosophy, Anthropology, Geography, etc. However, it is not clear whether space is conceptualised similarly or even equally in these disciplines. So, different questions arise: What is common and what is different? Can we find communalities shared in the whole area of spatial cognition? How do such commonalities differ from spatial concepts outside of spatial cognition, for example in physics? And how – if at all – do spatial concepts differ from non-spatial concepts such as colour or social relation concepts? To address these questions, it seems meaningful to distinguish between different conceptions such as absolute space vs. relative space, symbolic vs. connectionist, pictorial vs. sentential, or non-conceptual vs. conceptual. However, these distinctions cannot only be grounded in empirical data but need also to involve thorough conceptual analysis. This symposium aims, first, at giving an overview of the different conceptions of space found in the different disciplines, and, second, at providing room for discussing communalities, differences and relations between these different conceptions, and the contrast between spatial concepts and non-spatial concepts as conceived by the different disciplines. This will enhance a mutual interdisciplinary understanding at the conceptual level. Thus, the symposium will initiate an interdisciplinary discussion which brings together different perspectives, thereby helping to establish a common understanding of the most basic concepts in spatial cognition across the different disciplines. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.gk-ev.de/www2/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/KogWis2008-Proceedings.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Dresden, Germany 9. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für Kognitionswissenschaft (KogWis '08) en meilingerTMeilinger vosgerauGVosgerau conference 5245 Human orientation in Space: Distinguishing spaces, memory systems, and reference frames 2008 10 9 15 Three distinctions explaining differences in human orientation in space are introduced: First, humans are capable of using multiple memory systems to represent their spatial surroundings and to transform information between these systems. For example, a route can be memorised in spatial memory, but it can also be expressed in verbal directions used to build a second memory trace or to communicate it to other humans. Second, representations of space can refer to different spaces, i.e. figural spaces such as objects or pictures, vista spaces such as rooms or streets, or environmental spaces such as buildings or cities. Third, representations of space correspond to different reference frames. Reference frames often are understood as coordinate systems. In an egocentric reference frame, locations are represented with respect to the body of the navigator by individual vectors for each object in the space. In an allocentric reference frame, locations are represented with respect to the environment, e.g. a room. Humans use both reference frames to represent spaces. However, recent results indicate that egocentric reference frames seem to be rather transient. The aim of this talk is to examine the relations between the different forms of representation, which are still not very well explored. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.gk-ev.de/www2/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/KogWis2008-Proceedings.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Dresden, Germany 9. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für Kognitionswissenschaft (KogWis '08) en meilingerTMeilinger conference 5246 Orientation biases in memory for vista and environmental spaces 2008 10 9 31 This experiment tested whether vista spaces such as rooms or plazas are encoded differently in memory compared to environmental spaces such as buildings or cities. Participants learned an immersive virtual environment by walking through it in one direction. The environment consisted of seven corridors forming a labyrinth within which target objects were located. The participants either learned this environmental space alone, or distant mountains provided additional compass information. In a third condition, this labyrinth was located within a big hall (i.e., a vista space) which allowed self-localisation with respect to the vista space of the hall. In the testing phase, participants were teleported to different locations in the environment and were asked to identify their location and heading first, and then to point towards previously learned targets. In general, participants self localized faster when oriented in the direction in which they originally learned each corridor. However, a subset of participants showed a different orientation specificity in their pointing performance originating more from the orientation of the mountains or the hall. These participants were identified in catch trials after the experiment. The results are first hints for a difference in memory for vista and environmental spaces. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.gk-ev.de/www2/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/KogWis2008-Proceedings.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Dresden, Germany 9. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für Kognitionswissenschaft (KogWis '08) en meilingerTMeilinger jspJSchulte-Pelkum naimaNLaharnar terawWTeramoto frankensteinJFrankenstein hhbHHBülthoff conference 5528 The integration of spatial information across different perspectives 2008 10 9 31 The integration of spatial information across different perspectives or viewpoints is a frequent spatial task, yet relatively little is known about it. In the present experiment, participants were shown three target locations from one point of view. After walking away, they either returned to the same location or to a novel location before being presented with three additional target locations. Their task was to plan and navigate the shortest possible path to visit all six target locations. To successfully solve the task, participants had to integrate different pieces of spatial information acquired from two viewpoints. We measured errors and the time to reach the first target. An increased number of errors in the condition including a perspective shift strongly suggest that participants encoded different views which had to be aligned in order to be integrated. The fact that the increase in errors primarily originated from the target locations presented first, indicates that the first view was transformed into the perspective of the second view. Neither egocentric updating, allocentric orientation-independent memory, nor allocentric reference axis theory can explain these results. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://www.gk-ev.de/www2/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/KogWis2008-Proceedings.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Dresden, Germany 9. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für Kognitionswissenschaft (KogWis '08) en malteJMWiener meilingerTMeilinger ABerthoz conference Meilinger2008 Raumkonzepte in der Psychologie 2008 2 29 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Hamburg, Germany Helmut-Schmidt-Universität: Arbeitsbereich Raum- und Umweltkognition meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2007 Do humans use metric maps for environmental large scale spaces? 2007 11 21 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Paris, France Collège de France: Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action meilingerTMeilinger conference MeilingerRB2007 Orientation Specificity in Long-Term Memory for Environmental Spaces 2007 8 31 58 This study examined orientation specificity in human long-term memory for environmental spaces. Thirty-eight participants learned an immersive virtual environment by walking in one direction. The environment consisted of seven corridors within which target objects were located. In the testing phase, participants were teleported to different locations in the environment and were asked to identify their location and heading and then to point towards previously learned targets. As predicted by view-dependent theories, participants pointed more accurately when oriented in the direction in which they originally learned each corridor; even when visibility was limited to one meter. When the whole corridor was visible, participants also self-localised better when oriented in the learned orientation. No support was found for a global reference direction underlying the memory of the whole layout or for an exclusive orientation-independent memory. We propose a ?network of reference frames? theory to integrate elements of the different theoretical positions. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk http://sites.univ-provence.fr/wlpc/escop07_2/proceedings_ESCOP2007.pdf Marseille, France 15th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (ESCOP 2007) meilingerTMeilinger bernieBERiecke hhbHHBülthoff conference Meilinger2007_2 Orientierung im Raum 2007 6 25 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Würzburg, Germany Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg: Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Verkehrswissenschaften meilingerTMeilinger conference 4438 Wie viel Information brauchen wir? Selbstlokalisation und Wege finden mit schematisierten Karten 2007 3 49 234 Welche Information ist notwendig um sich zu orientieren? In zwei Feldexperimenten wurde ein Grundriss mit drei stark schematisierten Karten verglichen, die nur Routenwissen bereitstellten. Mit Hilfe der Karte bestimmten die 32 Probanden in je zwei Aufgaben ihre Position in einem ihnen unbekannten komplexen mehrstöckigen Gebäude und mussten verschiedene Ziele finden. Kartennutzung und verschiedene Leistungsmaße wurden erhoben. Trotz der spärlicheren Information fanden die Probanden ihr Ziel mit der eindeutigen Schemakarte besser, als mit dem Grundriss. Keine Unterschiede ergaben sich in der Selbstlokalisation. Beide Gruppen orientierten sich vermutlich an der Netzwerkstruktur der Wege und nicht an lokaler Geometrie, was den Suchraum möglicher Standpunkte verkleinert. Die Nutzung der schematisierten Karte erfolgte schneller. Hoch schematisierte Karten mit weniger als der Standardinformation können zu besserer Leistung führen. Die Ergebnisse werden im Kontext von Routen und Überblickswissen interpretiert. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/Abstractband_TeaP_2007_Trier.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Trier, Germany 49. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2007) de meilingerTMeilinger MBrösamle CHölscher GWilbertz JBüchner HSprenger conference Meilinger2006 Orientierung im Raum mit Karten und wie Menschen ihren Weg von A nach B finden 2006 9 7 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/Vortrag_Meilinger_060907.pdf http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture http://www.dlr.de/ts/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-1244/1901_read-5772/ Braunschweig, Germany Universität Braunschweig: DLR Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2006_2 Memory for environmental spaces 2006 6 21 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Freiburg i. Br., Germany Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg: Center for Cognitive Science meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2006_3 Memory for environmental spaces 2006 6 7 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Tübingen, Germany Universität Tübingen: Kognitive Neurowissenschaft meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2006_4 Psychophysik der Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle 2006 3 4 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Tuttlingen, Germany Aesculap AG meilingerTMeilinger conference 3897 "Wie komm' ich da jetzt hin?": Der Einfluss von Navigationshilfen und Strategiewahl auf das Bewegungsverhalten in einem komplexen Gebäude 2006 3 48 140 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/Abstractband_48_2006_mainz.pdf Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Mainz, Germany 48. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2006) en SJBüchner CHölscher meilingerTMeilinger conference Meilinger2004 How to reach a goal: strategies and representations in wayfinding 2004 12 13 http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Department Bülthoff Invited Lecture Tübingen, Germany Universität Tübingen: Kognitive Neurowissenschaft meilingerTMeilinger conference 2466 Das Erlernen der Navigation in Informationssystemen als multicodierter Prozess Experimentelle Psychologie 2002 3 44 31 Im Forschungsprojekt -Kompetenzerwerb für Fahrerinformationssysteme- (gefördert durch Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V. und Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen) wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise der Aufbau begrifflicher und visueller Repräsentationen mitverantwortlich für das Erlernen von Informationssystemen ist. Erfasst werden die Leistung in der Systemnavigation (Bedienzeiten, Fehler, Hilfebenutzung), einer semantischen Wahlreaktionsaufgabe und der Zuweisung der relativen Itemposition auf einer eindimensionalen visuellen Analogskala. Studie 1 (n = 28 Probanden) belegt, dass die Eindeutigkeit begrifflicher Hierarchien in einem selbsterklärenden System den Lernerfolg beeinflusst. Die Systembenutzer konstruieren zugleich eine visuelle Repräsentation. Begrifflich eindeutige Hierarchien gehen mit einer präziseren visuellen Repräsentation einher. Studie 2 (n = 10 Probanden) zeigt, dass mit einem höheren Lernaufwand selbst bei einem System sinnloser Silben eine begriffliche Repräsentation aufgebaut wird. Die Veränderung der Position von Systeminhalten beeinflusst die Systemnavigation, nicht jedoch dessen begriffliche Repräsentation. Das Erlernen von Informationssystemen ist folglich als multicodierter Prozess zu betrachten, in dem begriffliche und visuelle Repräsentationen als lernrelevante Faktoren zu berücksichtigen sind. http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Abstract Talk https://www.teap.de/memory/ Biologische Kybernetik Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Chemnitz, Germany 44. Tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP 2002) HPKrüger ITotzke meilingerTMeilinger NRauch