% % This file was created by the Typo3 extension % sevenpack version 0.7.14 % % --- Timezone: CEST % Creation date: 2017-05-23 % Creation time: 10-51-39 % --- Number of references % 16 % @Article { MeilingerFSBB2015, title = {Not all memories are the same: Situational context influences spatial recall within one’s city of residency}, journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review}, year = {2016}, month = {2}, volume = {23}, number = {1}, pages = {246-252}, abstract = {Reference frames in spatial memory encoding have been examined intensively in recent years. However, their importance for recall has received considerably less attention. In the present study, passersby used tags to arrange a configuration map of prominent city center landmarks. It has been shown that such configurational knowledge is memorized within a north-up reference frame. However, participants adjusted their maps according to their body orientations. For example, when participants faced south, the maps were likely to face south-up. Participants also constructed maps along their location perspective—that is, the self–target direction. If, for instance, they were east of the represented area, their maps were oriented west-up. If the location perspective and body orientation were in opposite directions (i.e., if participants faced away from the city center), participants relied on location perspective. The results indicate that reference frames in spatial recall depend on the current situation rather than on the organization in long-term memory. These results cannot be explained by activation spread within a view graph, which had been used to explain similar results in the recall of city plazas. However, the results are consistent with forming and transforming a spatial image of nonvisible city locations from the current location. Furthermore, prior research has almost exclusively focused on body- and environment-based reference frames. The strong influence of location perspective in an everyday navigational context indicates that such a reference frame should be considered more often when examining human spatial cognition.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2016/meilinger_et_al_2016_situated_maps_pre_final_version.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758\%2Fs13423-015-0883-7.pdf}, DOI = {10.3758/s13423-015-0883-7}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Simon, N and B{\"u}lthoff, HH and Bresciani, J-P} } @Article { MeilingerSFHLMB2016, title = {How to best name a place? Facilitation and inhibition of route learning due to descriptive and arbitrary location labels}, journal = {Frontiers in Psychology}, year = {2016}, month = {1}, volume = {7}, number = {76}, pages = {1-7}, abstract = {Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before – wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50\% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections’ names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression). Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections’ names were descriptive and participants’ route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2016/Frontiers-Psychol-2016-Meilinger.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00076/full}, DOI = {10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00076}, author = {Meilinger, T and Schulte-Pelkum, J and Frankenstein, J and Hardiess, G and Laharnar, N and Mallot, HA and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Article { MeilingerFWBH2014_2, title = {Reference frames in learning from maps and navigation}, journal = {Psychological Research}, year = {2015}, month = {11}, volume = {79}, number = {6}, pages = {1000-1008}, abstract = {In everyday life, navigators often consult a map before they navigate to a destination (e.g., a hotel, a room, etc.). However, not much is known about how humans gain spatial knowledge from seeing a map and direct navigation together. In the present experiments, participants learned a simple multiple corridor space either from a map only, only from walking through the virtual environment, first from the map and then from navigation, or first from navigation and then from the map. Afterwards, they conducted a pointing task from multiple body orientations to infer the underlying reference frames. We constructed the learning experiences in a way such that map-only learning and navigation-only learning triggered spatial memory organized along different reference frame orientations. When learning from maps before and during navigation, participants employed a map- rather than a navigation-based reference frame in the subsequent pointing task. Consequently, maps caused the employment of a map-oriented reference frame found in memory for highly familiar urban environments ruling out explanations from environmental structure or north preference. When learning from navigation first and then from the map, the pattern of results reversed and participants employed a navigation-based reference frame. The priority of learning order suggests that despite considerable difference between map and navigation learning participants did not use the more salient or in general more useful information, but relied on the reference frame established first.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2015/Psychol-Res-2015-Meilinger.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2Fs00426-014-0629-6.pdf}, DOI = {10.1007/s00426-014-0629-6}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Watanabe, K and B{\"u}lthoff, HH and H{\"o}lscher, C} } @Article { MeilingerFB2014, title = {When in doubt follow your nose: a wayfinding strategy}, journal = {Frontiers in Psychology}, year = {2014}, month = {11}, volume = {5}, number = {1363}, pages = {1-7}, abstract = {Route selection is governed by various strategies which often allow minimizing the required memory capacity. Previous research showed that navigators primarily remember information at route decision points and at route turns, rather than at intersections which required straight walking. However, when actually navigating the route or indicating directional decisions, navigators make fewer errors when they are required to walk straight. This tradeoff between location memory and route decisions accuracy was interpreted as a “when in doubt follow your nose” strategy which allows navigators to only memorize turns and walk straight by default, thus considerably reducing the number of intersections to memorize. These findings were based on newly learned routes. In the present study we show that such an asymmetry in route memory also prevails for planning routes within highly familiar environments. Participants planned route sequences between locations in their city of residency by pressing arrow keys on a keyboard. They tended to ignore straight walking intersections, but they ignored turns much less so. However, for reported intersections participants were quicker at indicating straight walking than turning. Together with results described in the literature, these findings suggest that a “when in doubt follow your nose strategy” is applied also within highly familiar spaces and might originate from limited working memory capacity during planning a route.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2014/Frontiers-Psychol-2014-Meilinger.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01363/full}, DOI = {10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01363}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Article { MeilingerFB2013, title = {Learning to navigate: Experience versus maps}, journal = {Cognition}, year = {2013}, month = {10}, volume = {129}, number = {1}, pages = {24–30}, abstract = {People use “route knowledge” to navigate to targets along familiar routes and “survey knowledge” to determine (by pointing, for example) a target’s metric location. We show that both root in separate memories of the same environment: participants navigating through their home city relied on representations and reference frames different from those they used when doing a matched survey task. T{\"u}bingen residents recalled their way along a familiar route to a distant target while located in a photorealistic virtual 3D model of T{\"u}bingen, indicating their route decisions on a keyboard. Participants had previously done a survey task (pointing) using the same start points and targets. Errors and response latencies observed in route recall were completely unrelated to errors and latencies in pointing. This suggests participants employed different and independent representations for each task. Further, participants made fewer routing errors when asked to respond from a horizontal walking perspective rather than a constant aerial perspective. This suggests that instead of the single reference, north-up frame (similar to a conventional map) they used in the survey task, participants employed different, and most probably multiple, reference frames learned from “on the ground” navigating experience. The implication is that, within their everyday environment, people use map or navigation-based knowledge according to which best suits the task.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2013/Cognition-2013-Meilinger.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027713001121}, DOI = {10.1016/j.cognition.2013.05.013}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Article { FrankensteinMBM2011, title = {Is the Map in Our Head Oriented North?}, journal = {Psychological Science}, year = {2012}, month = {2}, volume = {23}, number = {2}, pages = {120-125}, abstract = {We examined how a highly familiar environmental space—one’s city of residence—is represented in memory. Twenty-six participants faced a photo-realistic virtual model of their hometown and completed a task in which they pointed to familiar target locations from various orientations. Each participant’s performance was most accurate when he or she was facing north, and errors increased as participants’ deviation from a north-facing orientation increased. Pointing errors and latencies were not related to the distance between participants’ initial locations and the target locations. Our results are inconsistent with accounts of orientation-free memory and with theories assuming that the storage of spatial knowledge depends on local reference frames. Although participants recognized familiar local views in their initial locations, their strategy for pointing relied on a single, north-oriented reference frame that was likely acquired from maps rather than experience from daily exploration. Even though participants had spent significantly more time navigating the city than looking at maps, their pointing behavior seemed to rely on a north-oriented mental map.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2012/Psychol-Sci-2012-Frankenstein.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://pss.sagepub.com/content/23/2/120.full.pdf+html}, DOI = {10.1177/0956797611429467}, author = {Frankenstein, J and Mohler, BJ and B{\"u}lthoff, HH and Meilinger, T} } @Inproceedings { MeilingerSFBB2015, title = {Global Landmarks Do Not Necessarily Improve Spatial Performance in Addition to Bodily Self-Movement Cues when Learning a Large-Scale Virtual Environment}, year = {2015}, month = {10}, pages = {25-28}, abstract = {Comparing spatial performance in different virtual reality setups can indicate which cues are relevant for a realistic virtual experience. Bodily self-movement cues and global orientation information were shown to increase spatial performance compared with local visual cues only. We tested the combined impact of bodily and global orientation cues by having participants learn a virtual multi corridor environment either by only walking through it, with additional distant landmarks providing heading information, or with a surrounding hall relative to which participants could determine their orientation and location. Subsequent measures on spatial memory only revealed small and non-reliable differences between the learning conditions. We conclude that additional global landmark information does not necessarily improve user's orientation within a virtual environment when bodily-self-movement cues are available.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.defileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/2015/ICAT-EGVE-2015-Meilinger.pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://www.ic-at.org/2015/\#program}, editor = {Imura, M. , P. Figueroa, B.J. Mohler}, publisher = {Eurographics Association}, address = {Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland}, event_place = {Kyoto, Japan}, event_name = {25th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and the 20h Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments (ICAT-EGVE 2015)}, ISBN = {978-3-905674-84-2}, DOI = {10.2312/egve.20151306}, author = {Meilinger, T and Schulte-Pelkum, J and Frankenstein, J and Berger, D and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Inproceedings { 5709, title = {Spatial Memory for Highly Familiar Environments}, year = {2009}, month = {8}, pages = {2650-2655}, abstract = {In this experiment we examined orientation dependency in human memory for a highly familiar environmental space. Twenty-seven inhabitants living for at least two years in T{\"u}bingen saw a photorealistic virtual model of the city center (Virtual T{\"u}bingen) through a head-mounted display. They were teleported to five different initial locations in Virtual T{\"u}bingen and asked to point towards well-known target locations. This procedure was repeated in twelve different body-orientations for each of the initial locations. Participants pointed more accurately when oriented northwards regardless of the initial location. We also found a small effect of local orientation. The more participants were aligned with the street leading to the target location the better was their pointing performance. Even though the strong alignment effect with a global orientation is predicted by reference direction theory, this theory does not predict that this global orientation is, first, common for almost all participants, and second, t hat this orientation is north. We discuss our results with respect to well-known theories of spatial memory and speculate that the bias we find for north orientation is due to participants relying on memory of a city map of T{\"u}bingen for their pointing response.}, url = {http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/files/publications/CogSci2009-Frankenstein_5709[0].pdf}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/proceedings/2009/index.html}, editor = {Taatgen, N. , H. Van Rijn}, publisher = {Cognitive Science Society}, address = {Austin, TX, USA}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Amsterdam, Netherlands}, event_name = {31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2009)}, language = {en}, ISBN = {978-0-9768318-5-3}, author = {Frankenstein, J and Meilinger, T and Mohler, BJ and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Poster { MeilingerFBMSB2016, title = {Wie erinnern wir r{\"a}umliches Wissen unseres Wohnortes?}, year = {2016}, month = {9}, day = {19}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, department2 = {Research Group Mohler}, web_url = {http://www.dgpskongress.de/frontend/index.php?page_id=453}, event_place = {Leipzig, Germany}, event_name = {50. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft f{\"u}r Psychologie (DGPs 2016)}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Bresciani, J-P and Mohler, B and Simon, N and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Poster { MeilingerFMB2014, title = {How to remember T{\"u}bingen? Reference frames in route and survey knowledge of one’s city of residency}, journal = {Cognitive Processing}, year = {2014}, month = {9}, volume = {15}, number = {Supplement 1}, pages = {S53-S54}, abstract = {Knowledge underlying everyday navigation is distinguished into route and survey knowledge (Golledge 1999). Route knowledge allows re-combining and navigating familiar routes. Survey knowledge is used for pointing to distant locations or finding novel shortcuts. We show that within one’s city of residency route and survey knowledge root in separate memories of the same environment and are represented within different reference frames. Twenty-six Tu¨bingen residents who lived there for seven years in average faced a photo- realistic virtual model of T{\"u}bingen and completed a survey task in which they pointed to familiar target locations from various locations and orientations. Each participant’s performance was most accurate when facing north, and errors increased as participants’ deviation from a north-facing orientation increased. This suggests that participants’ survey knowledge was organized within a single, north-oriented reference frame. One week later, 23 of the same participants conducted route knowledge tasks comprising of the very same start and goal locations used in the survey task before. Now participants did not point to a goal location, but used arrow keys of a keyboard to enter route decisions along an imagined route leading to the goal. Deviations from the correct number of left, straight, etc. decisions and response latencies were completely uncorrelated to errors and latencies in pointing. This suggests that participants employed different and independent representations for the matched route and survey tasks. Furthermore, participants made fewer route errors when asked to respond from an imagined horizontal walking perspective rather than from an imagined constant aerial perspective which replaced left, straight, right decisions by up, left, right, down as in a map with the order tasks balanced. This performance advantage suggests that participants did not rely on the single, north-up reference used for pointing. Route and survey knowledge were organized along different reference frames. We conclude that our participants’ route knowledge employed multiple local reference frames acquired from navigation whereas their survey knowledge relied on a single north-oriented reference frame learned from maps. Within their everyday environment, people seem to use map or navigation-based knowledge according to which best suits the task.}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, department2 = {Research Group Mohler}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2Fs10339-014-0632-2.pdf}, event_place = {T{\"u}bingen, Germany}, event_name = {12th Biannual Conference of the German Cognitive Science Society (KogWis 2014)}, DOI = {10.1007/s10339-014-0632-2}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Mohler, BJ and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Poster { MeilingerFWBH2014, title = {Map-based Reference Frames Are Used to Organize Memory of Subsequent Navigation Experience}, year = {2014}, month = {9}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://conference.spatial-cognition.de/SC2014/node/48}, event_place = {Bremen, Germany}, event_name = {Spatial Cognition 2014}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Watanabe, K and B{\"u}lthoff, HH and H{\"o}lscher, C} } @Poster { 5909, title = {The situational influence of location and body orientation on the recall of survey knowledge}, journal = {Cognitive Processing}, year = {2009}, month = {9}, volume = {10}, number = {Supplement 2}, pages = {S169}, abstract = {The theories of situated and embodied cognition have been gaining more and more attention recently. We examined the influence of the current situation (i.e., location and orientation) on accessing spatial memory of locations within ones city of residence. Tu¨bingen residents produced a simple map of the city centre, by arranging small badges representing well-known locations on a sheet of paper or a computer screen. Participants produced the maps at different locations relative to the city centre (north of, east of, etc.) and in different body orientations (facing north, east, etc.). We analyzed the orientation of these maps (north up, east up, etc.).We found an influence of location and body orientation on the orientation of the maps. Participants produced maps in the orientation they were facing more often than expected by chance (i.e., produced a north up map when facing north, an east up map when facing east, etc.). Participants also oriented the maps according to their viewpoint more often than expected by chance (i.e., produced a north up map when located south of the city centre, an east up map when located west, etc.). These results indicate that some participants either selected one of multiple long-term representations or they adopted a single longterm spatial representation according to the current situation.}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007\%2Fs10339-009-0328-1.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Roma, Italy}, event_name = {Fourth International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC 2009)}, language = {en}, DOI = {10.1007/s10339-009-0328-1}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Holzer, S and Brescani, J-P} } @Poster { 5908, title = {Distance and alignment effects in survey knowledge of a highly familiar city}, journal = {Perception}, year = {2009}, month = {8}, volume = {38}, number = {ECVP Abstract Supplement}, pages = {63}, abstract = {In this experiment we examined alignment and distance effects in human memory for a highly familiar environmental space. Twenty-seven participants who lived on average seven years in T{\"u}bingen saw a photorealistic virtual model of the city centre of T{\"u}bingen (Virtual T{\"u}bingen) through a head-mounted display. They were teleported to five different places in Virtual T{\"u}bingen and asked to point towards well-known target locations. This procedure was repeated 36 times for each of the target locations in 12 different body orientations. Participants pointed much more accurately when oriented northwards regardless of target. There were no significant correlations between straight line distance to the pointing target and pointing speed or accuracy. These results are consistent with the assumption that all locations were represented within one oriented coordinate system. Even though this is predicted by reference direction theory, it is unclear why, first, almost all participants have the same reference direction, and second, why this direction is north. We discuss our results with respect to well-known theories of spatial memory and speculate that the bias for a north orientation is because participants rely on the memory of a map of T{\"u}bingen for their response.}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://pec.sagepub.com/content/38/1_suppl.toc}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Regensburg, Germany}, event_name = {32nd European Conference on Visual Perception}, language = {en}, DOI = {10.1177/03010066090380S101}, author = {Frankenstein, J and Mohler, B and B{\"u}lthoff, HH and Meilinger, T} } @Poster { 5710, title = {Place naming: examining the influence of language on wayfinding}, year = {2009}, month = {8}, pages = {1997}, abstract = {We asked the question how language influences a presumably embodied system such as human wayfinding. To test this, participants walked along a route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by what they saw. At the other 50\% of intersections they heard an arbitrary name which they also had to remember. In the test phase they were teleported to different intersections and had to indicate the direction the route went on. At intersections without a name they performed faster and more accurately. In a second experiment meaningful names were used instead. Participants now performed better at named intersection. The results indicate an interaction between language and the presumably embodied wayfinding system. This interaction cannot be explained by a limited common resource, depth of processing, overshadowing, or linguistic scaffolding. However, it is consistent with dual coding.}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://cognitivesciencesociety.org/conference2009/index.html}, editor = {Taatgen, N. , H. van Rijn}, publisher = {Cognitive Science Society}, address = {Austin, TX, USA}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Amsterdam, Netherlands}, event_name = {31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2009)}, language = {en}, ISBN = {978-0-9768318-5-3}, author = {Meilinger, T and Schulte-Pelkum, J and Frankenstein, J and Laharnar, N and Hardie{\ss}, G and Mallot, HA and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} } @Poster { 5907, title = {The influence of the current situation on the recall of survey knowledge: the case of location and body orientation}, journal = {Perception}, year = {2009}, month = {8}, volume = {38}, number = {ECVP Abstract Supplement}, pages = {66}, abstract = {Theories of situated and embodied cognition have been gaining more and more attention recently. We examined the influence of the current situation (ie, location and orientation) on accessing spatial memory of locations within one's city of residence. T{\"u}bingen residents produced a simple map of the city centre, by arranging small badges representing well-known locations on a sheet of paper. Participants produced the maps at different locations relative to the city centre (north of, east of, etc) and in different body orientations (facing north, east, etc). We analyzed the orientation of these maps (north up, east up, etc). We found an influence of location and body orientation on the orientation of the maps. Participants produced maps in the orientation they were facing more often than expected by chance (eg, produced an east up map when facing east). Participants also oriented the maps according to their viewpoint more often than expected by chance (eg, produced a west up map when located east of the city centre). These results indicate that participants do not just access spatial long-term memory of their city of residence, but that they adjust it according to their current situation.}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, web_url = {http://pec.sagepub.com/content/38/1_suppl.toc}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Regensburg, Germany}, event_name = {32nd European Conference on Visual Perception}, language = {en}, DOI = {10.1177/03010066090380S101}, author = {Meilinger, T and Frankenstein, J and Holzer, S and Brescani, J-P} } @Conference { 5246, title = {Orientation biases in memory for vista and environmental spaces}, year = {2008}, month = {10}, volume = {9}, pages = {31}, abstract = {This experiment tested whether vista spaces such as rooms or plazas are encoded differently in memory compared to environmental spaces such as buildings or cities. Participants learned an immersive virtual environment by walking through it in one direction. The environment consisted of seven corridors forming a labyrinth within which target objects were located. The participants either learned this environmental space alone, or distant mountains provided additional compass information. In a third condition, this labyrinth was located within a big hall (i.e., a vista space) which allowed self-localisation with respect to the vista space of the hall. In the testing phase, participants were teleported to different locations in the environment and were asked to identify their location and heading first, and then to point towards previously learned targets. In general, participants self localized faster when oriented in the direction in which they originally learned each corridor. However, a subset of participants showed a different orientation specificity in their pointing performance originating more from the orientation of the mountains or the hall. These participants were identified in catch trials after the experiment. The results are first hints for a difference in memory for vista and environmental spaces.}, department = {Department B{\"u}lthoff}, talk_type = {Abstract Talk}, web_url = {http://www.gk-ev.de/www2/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/KogWis2008-Proceedings.pdf}, institute = {Biologische Kybernetik}, organization = {Max-Planck-Gesellschaft}, event_place = {Dresden, Germany}, event_name = {9. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft f{\"u}r Kognitionswissenschaft (KogWis '08)}, language = {en}, author = {Meilinger, T and Schulte-Pelkum, J and Laharnar, N and Teramoto, W and Frankenstein, J and B{\"u}lthoff, HH} }