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Dr. Johannes Schultz

 

Bild von Schultz, Johannes, Dr.

Johannes Schultz

Position: Gastwissenschaftler  Abteilung: Alumni Bülthoff


Ich studiere die neuralen Grundlagen von visueller Wahrnemung und Kognition des Menschen mit Hilfe von Psychophysik und Kernspintomographie (fMRT). Ich interessiere mich für "soziales Sehen", das heisst, visuelle Prozesse, die in sozialen Interaktionen involviert sind. Bewegungen von Objekten und Gesichtern interessieren mich besonders, denn Bewegung enthält wichtige Information über die Natur und die Handlungen eines sich bewegenden Wesens. Ein Beispiel einer Studie über den Effekt von Bewegung auf Objekterkennung und Verarbeitung gibt es hier. Meine Hauptprojekte sind zur Zeit: 1) wie können einfache Objekte allein durch ihre Bewegung lebendig aussehen (Bespiele von Veröffentlichungen hier und hier), und 2) wie verarbeitet das Gehirnbewegte Gesichter (Beispiel hier).

 

Seit September 2012 bit ich lecturer (Assistenzprofessor) im Department of Psychology, Durham University, Grossbritannien (hier geht es zu meiner neuen Webseite). Zusammen mit Isabelle Bülthoff leitete ich davor die Gruppe Erkennen und Kategorisieren der Abteilung Wahrnehmung, Kognition und Handlung. Ich habe noch mehrere Projekte in Zusammenarbeit mit Mitglieder der Gruppe:


Ein etwas weniger aktives Interesse meinerseits ist der Einfluss von Erfahrung auf Aufmerksamkeit (Beispiel hier).

 

Hier klicken für Information über Zitierungen.

 

Processing of biological movements by the human brain

 

Introduction

For human beings, the movements of living creatures are an important and at times vital source of information. Biological movements can be used to identify moving things as alive, can tell us about what goals they are pursuing or what they feel and thus help us decide how to interact with them. However, between simply detecting “aliveness” or animacy in a moving object and processing and categorizing subtle facial movements, there is a whole range of processing at work and little is known about the brain mechanisms involved, and even less is known about their dysfunctions.

 

Goals

Our goal is to understand how the human visual system processes biological movements, in their simplest to most complex manifestations. Specific goals include finding which brain regions are involved in general and which are specific to particular kinds of biological motion, how the different kinds of information conveyed by face motion are processed by the face processing network, and how subtle but behaviorally relevant differences in facial motion are differentiated and represented.

 

Methods

We take great care to use highly controlled, parametric stimuli in all our experiments. For example, we have created movement algorithms that make a single dot appear animate or not with minimal context information, while keeping low-level motion characteristics almost identical [Figure 1A]. Regarding facial motion, we parametrically varied frame rate and frame order to separate static information from meaningful, fluid motion [Figure 1B]. These stimuli are used in classical psychophysical and functional brain imaging experiments. Representations of biological movements with a high variability are studied using multivariate analysis methods applied to both psychophysical and brain imaging data. While we mostly study the healthy population, we start looking at deficits in detection of animacy and social interactions from biological movements in Autism. Students and researchers at the MPI and in several other institutions collaborate in these projects.


Figure 1

Figure 1 A) Animacy judgments about a single moving dot as a function of the motion parameter controlling the dots movement equation. Black lines show mean ratings over all subjects and fitted cumulative gaussian, grey lines show ratings of each subject (N=20). B) Perceived fluidity of the facial motion in movies presented at different frame rates, with frames either in correct or in scrambled order (mean over 10 subjects). The latter stimuli are controls with the same amount of static information but no fluid motion.

 

Initial results and conclusions

Our results indicate that the superior temporal sulcus (STS) plays a central role in processing most kinds of biological motion as expected from previous work [Figure 2A], with the notable exception of animate-looking single moving objects. We found that facial motion boosts the response of face-selective regions involved in processing face identity [1,2] [Figure 2B], prompting a follow-up study asking whether idiosyncratic facial motion carrying identity information is directly analysed in these regions. Another new finding is that frontal regions show a stronger categorical response than STS to animate-looking moving objects [3] [Figure 2C], disproving the hypothesis that STS is a universal life-detector. Lastly, results from our Autism study reveal dysfunctions in identification of interacting moving objects, but not in processing isolated, animate-looking objects [4]. We are currently working on confirming and following up on these results and are working on updates of current theories to fit our findings.


Figure 1

Figure 2 A) Brain regions with BOLD response increasing with fluidity of facial motion are shown in red. Strongest and widest response is observed in STS. B) BOLD response in the fusiform face area of the right hemisphere to facial motion stimuli with different frame rates and frame orders. Results show a stronger response to stimuli with multiple frames (5, 12.5 and 25 Hz) than to a single frame (1 Hz), with a stronger response to ordered than to scrambled frames at higher frame rates. C) Cluster of voxels showing a categorical response to animacy stimuli.

 

References

1.  Schultz J and Pilz KS (2009) Natural facial motion enhances cortical responses to faces. Experimental Brain Research 194(3) 465-475.

2.  Schultz J, Brockhaus M, Bülthoff HH and Pilz KS (2011) What the human brain likes about facial motion. Submitted.

3.  Schultz J and Bülthoff, HH (2011) Brain regions involved in detection of animacy from a single moving object. In preparation.

4.  David N, Schultz J, Milne E, Schunke O, Schöttle D, Münchau A, Vogeley K, Siegel M, Engel AK (2011) Selective alteration of social-interactive motion signal detection in autism spectrum disorders. In preparation.

Seit Oktober 2010 - jetzt: co-Projektleitr der Gruppe Erkennen und Kategorisieren in Prof. Bülthoff's Abteilung.

Oktober 2004 - jetzt: post-doctoral Research Scientist in Prof. Bülthoff's Abteilung am the Max Planck Institut für Biologische Kybernetik. Finanzierung: Max Planck Gesellschaft.

2004: Ph.D. in Kognitiven Neurowissenschaften am Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience der University College London, Grossbritannien. Thema: Wahrnemung komplexer Bewegungen bei Menschen, studiert mit funktionaler Kernspintomographie und Psychophysik. Betreuer: Chris D. Frith und Daniel M. Wolpert.

2000: Diplom in Medizin an der Universität Genf, Schweiz. Zusätzliche Kurse und Ausbildung in Experimentalpsychologie, Neuropsychologie und Molekularbiologie.

Präferenzen: 
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Zeige Zusammenfassung

Poster (50):

Schultz J und Lennert T (August-2009): BOLD signal in intraparietal sulcus covaries with magnitude of implicitly driven attention shifts, 32nd European Conference on Visual Perception, Regensburg, Germany, Perception, 38(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 137.
Schultz J und Dopjans L (August-2008): Perception of animacy from a single moving object, 31st European Conference on Visual Perception, Utrecht, Netherlands, Perception, 37(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 154.
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Vuong QC und Schultz J (Juni-2008): Dynamic objects are more than the sum of their views: Behavioural and neural signatures of depth rotation in object recognition, 8th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS 2008), Naples, FL, USA, Journal of Vision, 8(6) 39.
Schultz J, Cohen MX, Haupt S, Bülthoff HH und Elger C (November-2007): Intracranial electrophysiological correlates in humans during observation of animate-looking moving objects, 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2007), San Diego, CA, USA.
Schultz J, Lennert T und Bülthoff HH (Juli-2007): Updating of Attention Allocation in Parietal Cortex, 10th Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz (TWK 2007), Tübingen, Germany.
Schultz J und Bülthoff HH (Oktober-2006): Neural correlates of attentional modulation induced by trial history, 36th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2006), Atlanta, GA, USA.
Conrad V, McDonald JS und Schultz J (August-2006): Breaking the stability of perceptual instability: Temporal dynamics of ambiguous figure reversal and interference from distractor patterns, 29th European Conference on Visual Perception, St. Petersburg, Perception, 35(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 101-102.
Vuong QC, Schultz J und Chuang L (August-2006): Human perception and recognition of metric changes of part-based dynamic novel objects, 29th European Conference on Visual Perception, St. Petersburg, Russia, Perception, 35(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 99.
Schultz J und de Vignemont F (März-2006): A Model of Theory-Of-Mind Based on Action Prediction, 9th Tübingen Perception Conference (TWK 2006), Tübingen, Germany.
McDonald JS und Schultz J (März-2006): The Visual System's Representation of Natural Images, 9th Tübingen Perception Conference (TWK 2006), Tübingen, Germany.
Schultz J und de Vignemont F (November-2005): A model of Theory-of-Mind based on action prediction, 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2005), Washington, DC, USA.
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Schultz J, Friston KJ, Wolpert DM und Frith CD (August-2005): Activation in superior temporal sulcus parallels a parameter inducing the percept of animacy, 28th European Conference on Visual Perception, A Coruña, Spain, Perception, 34(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 62.
Schultz J, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM und Frith CD (Oktober-2004): Activity in posterior superior temporal gyrus correlates inversely with kinematic information during observation of human actions, 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2004), San Diego, CA, USA.
Schultz J, Friston K, Imamizu H und Frith C (Juni-2004): Attention effects on superior temporal sulcus and gyrus activation during observation of intentional objects, Tenth Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (HBM 2004), Budapest, Hungary, NeuroImage, 22(Supplement 1) e2122.
Schultz J, Friston KJ, Imamizu H und Frith CD (November-2003): STs/STG region responds parametrically to goal-directedness during observation of abstract agents, 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2003), New Orleans, LA, USA.
Schultz J, Friston K, Wolpert D und Frith CD (April-2003): Detection of interacting objects by the human brain, 10th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, New York, NY, USA, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(Supplement) 189.
Schultz J, Wolpert D und Frith C (Juni-2002): Neural correlates of Mimed and Real action perception, 8th International Conference on Functional Mapping of the Human Brain (HBM 2002), Sendai, Japan, NeuroImage, 16(2 Supplement 1) 1386.
Schultz J, Goodenough OR, Frackowiak R und Frith CD (Juni-2001): Cortical regions associated with the sense of justice and legal rules, NeuroImage, 13(6:Supplement) S473.
Schultz J, Boeck R und Linder P (1999): Mutational analysis of the yeast DED1 protein, Translation and Stability of mRNA Meeting at the Palo Alto Institute of Molecular Medicine, 1999.
Schultz J und Hornung J-P (März-1994): Distribution and morphology of nitric oxid-positive neurons in the cerebral cortex during pre- and postnatal development, Annual Meeting of the Swiss Societies for Experimental Biology (USGEB), 1994.

Abschlussarbeiten (1):

Schultz JWR: Influence of goals on observation of actions: functional neuroimaging studies, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College London, (2004). PhD thesis
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Vorträge (4):

Schultz J, Kaulard K, Pilz P, Dobs K, Bülthoff I, Fernandez-Cruz A, Brockhaus B, Gardner J und Bülthoff HH (März-27-2017) Abstract Talk: Neural processing of facial motion cues about identity and expression, 59th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (TeaP 2017), Dresden, Germany 32-33.
Schultz J, Fernandez Cruz AL, de la Rosa S, Bülthoff HH und Kaulard K (September-2012) Abstract Talk: How are facial expressions represented in the human brain?, 35th European Conference on Visual Perception, Alghero, Italy, Perception, 41(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 38.
Kim BR, Esins J, Schultz J, Bülthoff I und Wallraven C (Juli-15-2012) Abstract Talk: Mapping the other-race-effect in face recognition using a three-experiment test battery, 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision (APCV 2012), Incheon, South Korea, i-Perception, 3(9) 711.
Schultz J und Bülthoff HH (August-2006) Abstract Talk: Attentional modulation by trial history, 29th European Conference on Visual Perception, St. Petersburg, Russia, Perception, 35(ECVP Abstract Supplement) 128.
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Last updated: Montag, 22.05.2017